15« FRANKFURT am MAIN. mmiANV. University of Frankfurt, Department of Social Hygiene« Professor Ludwig Ascher» Professor Ascher had done some work upon the physical fitness of employees in factories and was interested in industrial hygiene, coming to this field work from insurance. He maintains that there is no fixed "normal", but there are so-called normal groups and normal variations from these groups. Apparently he uses the cinematograph a great deal, studying the motions of workers and trying to devise short cuts and decrease extraneous motions. He cited an instance in which support of the arms when a man was mending shoes resulted in much less effort, and better skill was shown.