ART IMPULSE — ARTICULATION from the experimental standpoint. For these last theories in their relation to the origin of specific arts see Classification (of the fine arts). Literature : General works dealing inci¬ dentally with art theories as well as other aesthetic problems will be found under Aes¬ thetics, Beauty, and Classification (of the fine arts). (1) Historical: Bosanquet, Hist, of Aes¬ thetic (1892); Schasler, Krit. Gesch. d. Aesthetik (1872); Walter, Gesch. d. Aes- thetik irn Alterthum (1893); E. Müller, Gesch. d. Theorie d. Kunst bei den Alten (1834); Egger, Essai sur l’Hist. de la Critique chez les Grecs (3rd ed., 1887); Butcher, Aristotle’s Theory of Poetry and Fine Art (1895) ; Bénard, L’Esthétique d’Aristote (1887); Döring, Die Kunstlehre des Aristoteles (1876); Svoboda, Gesch. d. Ideale mit besonderer Berücksichtigung d. bildenden Kunst (1886); Lotze, Gesch. d. Aesthetik in Deutschland (1868); Hart¬ mann, Aesthetik, Historisch-krit. Theorie (1886) ; Basch, Essai critique sur l’esthétique de Kant (1896); Cohen, Kant’s Begründung d. Aesthetik (1889); Caird, Crit. Philos, of Kant (1889); Berger, Die Entwicklung v. Schiller’s Aesthetik (1894) ; Kedney, Hegel’s Aesthetics (1885); Bosanquet, Hegel’s Philos, of Fine Art (trans. of the Introd. with pref. essay, 1886); Milsand, L’Esthétique anglaise (1864, on Buskin); Kant, Crit. of Judgment (trans. Bernard, 1892); Schiller, Essays, Aesthetic and Philos. (Bohn Lib.) ; Hegel, Aesthetische Werke (1833—48), x. (2) Systematic: in addition to those named under IV above and under Aesthetics, G. Baldwin Brown, The Fine Arts (1891) ; COLLINGWOOD, Philos, of Ornament (1883) ; Ker, The Philosophy of Art, in Essays in Philos. Criticism (ed. by Seth and Haldane, 1883); Fierens-Gevaert, Essai sur l’Art contemporain (1897) ; Guy au, Les Problèmes de l’Esthétique contemporaine (4th ed., 1897) > Haddon, Evolution in Art (1895); Morris, The Lesser Arts, in Lectures on Art (1882) ; Proudhon, Du Principe de l’Art et de sa Destination sociale (1865); Sèailles, Essai sur le Génie dans l’Art (2nd ed., 1897); Riegel, Die bildenden Künste (4th ed., 1895); Volkelt, Aesthetische Zeitfragen (1895); Wallaschek, Primitive Music (1893) ; Aes¬ thetik der Ton-Kunst (1886) ; Sully, Sensa¬ tion andIntuition(i874); Gurney,The Power of Sound (1880), and Tertium Quid (1887); Prudhomme, L’expression dans les Beaux- Arts (1883); Vischer, Krit. Gänge, esp. Heft vi (1873); Carrière, Die Kunst im Zusammenhänge der Kulturentwickelung, u. die Ideale d. Menschheit (3rd ed., 1885); Alt, Syst. d. Künste (1888); Semper, Der Stil in den technischen u. techtonischen Künsten (2nd ed., 1878-9). (j.h.t.) Art Impulse : Ger. Kunsttrieb ; Fr. in¬ stinct esthétique ; Ital. istinto (or impulsa) artistico. The impulse which manifests itself in the production of works of art. Like the play impulse, it is generally held to be free and spontaneous, and not directly determined by material needs. It is distin¬ guished from the play impulse in that for its satisfaction it requires expression in a rational, ordered, and significant activity. For the various theories as to the specific impulses assigned as the origin of art see Art, and Classification (of the fine arts). Literature : Recent works giving especial attention to the subject are : Spencer, Psy¬ chology, ii ; Brown, The Fine Arts (1891) ; Grosse, Die Anfänge d. Kunst (1893, Eng. trans. 1897) ; Marshall, Pain, Pleasure, and Aesthetics (1894) ; Groos, The Play of Ani¬ mals (1898, Ger. 1896), and The Play of Man (1900, Ger. 1899); Ribot, La Psychol, des Sentiments (1896); Baldwin, Social and Eth. Interpret. (1897). (j.h.t.) Artery [Gr. àpr^pla, the windpipe, a sur¬ vival of the ancient notion that these vessels contained air] : Ger. Arterie, Schlagader ; Fr. artère ; Ital. arteria. A vessel which carries blood from the heart to a system of capillaries. See Vaso-motor System. (c.f.h.) Articular Sensation [Lat. articularis, pertaining to the joints] : Ger. Gelenkemp¬ findung ; Fr. sensation articulaire ; Ital. sensazione delle giunture. A sensation, whose adequate stimulus is movement of the one joint-surface upon the other, or pressure and counter-pressure of the two surfaces. The sensation is of great importance, as the basis of the perceptions of movement and position of the limbs, of resistance, &c. It possesses local signature (see Local Signs), and seems to show constancy of absolute sense discrimination. Literature: Külpe, Outlines of Psychol., 140 ff., 341 ff. ; Sanford, Course in Exper. Psychol., expts. 39, 40, 43; Goldscheider, Du Bois-Reymond’s Arch. (1889), 369, 540, and Suppl.-Bd. (1889), I4I5 Centralbl. f. Physiol. (1887 and 1889); E. Claparède, Du Sens musculaire (1897). (e.b.t.) Articulation (vocal) [Lat. articulatio, a joining together] : Ger. Artikulirung ; Fr. 73