INVOLUNTARY MOVEMENTS OF THE TONGUE BY H. C. COURTEN. Among the many psychological problems as yet only partially solved is that of automatic muscular movement. This is a phenomenon of many different phases, but the most important one, perhaps, is that of automatic movement of the speech organs. So far but little has been done toward its experimental demonstration. Hansen and Lehmann1 satisfied themselves of its existence, but obtained no measurements in regard to it. Curtis 2 secured some records showing unconscious move¬ ments of the larynx during mental action. These seem to be the only direct investigations of this problem. The apparatus used in my experiments consisted of a Rousselot 8 ex¬ ploratory bulb (Fig. i) fitted with a long tube connected to a Marey Fig. i. tambour. The bulb was of French make, about x cm. in thickness (measured in the direction of the tube), and 9 sq. cm. in cross section. This size was decided on only after repeated trials with bulbs of different sizes. The records were made on a kymograph. Some difficulty was experienced in finding the correct position for the bulb. At first it was placed far back in the mouth near the palate, because it was thought that the greatest movement of the tongue would be manifested there. But while it was in this position the subject showed a tendency to gag, and could not hold the bulb quietly in place. The most convenient and effective position was finally found to be in the front part 1 Hansen und Lehmann, Ober tmwillkilrliches Flüstern, Philos. Stud., 1895 XI 471. 2 Curtis, Automatic movements of tke larynx, Amer. Jour. Psychol., 1899 XI 237. 3 Rousselot, Principes de Phonétique Expérimentale, 86, Paris 1897. 93