LITHOGRAPHY: IV. DRAWING MATERIALS: By F. ERNEST JACKSON N the last article on lithography, the subject of the lithographic stone and its preparation was dealt with. Having prepared a surface to draw upon, the next thing to consider must be the materials used for drawing. These materials consist of lithographic crayons, rubbing chalk and ink. Lithographic chalk or crayon should be of a greasy, firm, black substance, that will work freely and smoothly under the hand without smearing, that will be capable of taking a fine, firm point when sharpened, and composed of ingredients of an acid-resisting nature. It is also very important to the artist that the chalk be as nearly as is possible of the tone value of the printing ink to be used in order to ensure the closest possible resemblance between the drawing on stone and the printed proof. Should there be in the manufacture of the crayons an excess of grease in proportion to colouring matter, the drawing on stone will appear grey in colour and there will be a tendency on the part of the draughtsman to overcharge his drawing, which will result in the production of a print considerably darker in tone than the drawing on stone. If on the contrary there be too much colouring matter in the crayons, the reverse effect will be produced, the drawing will appear black and strong on the stone, and the proof will print poorly and be grey in quality and many of the more delicate tones of the work will disappear. When drawing on stone the artist should never allow himself to lose sight of the fact that he is not only making a drawing but that he is also preparing a printing surface, and the iinal test of his labour will not lie in the beauty of the drawing he has executed on stone but in the excellence of the print which can be taken from the surface he has prepared. There are numberless formulae for making lithographic crayons, but all are made on a similar basis and only vary in detail. The following is quite a good one and it has the advantage of being simple and effective. Beeswax, 4 parts, tallow, 2 parts, Castille soap, 4 parts, white shellac, 2 parts and light French black, I part. The first two ingredients are placed in an iron or brass pan of dimensions amply sullicient to hold all the ingredients ; the pan is placed on a gas ring and the wax and tallow melted slowly; then the soap which has been previously cut into thin strips is added a little at a time ; the mixture being continually stirred. When the soap is dissolved the shellac is added in the same way, the stirring to continue without interruption. The temperature is then raised until the contents of the pan give off a white vapour, the pan is removed from 319