5 X : 5 'i I 'iiii:"i 3 : "V 43 " '7' : 2 E?" 5 1 1" I ' SE; : 1 X i It ; 2 M A-I P; K 1,5?-rt 5 2 K- " 3 I if E 5 ii -5: X 1' fl; 7 E E K J 7' V; if z z l 1 2 1 , 1 : -hf? s f 1' 2 : 4,. E f "A 's_ f - 5 The University Town of Munich. 2 5 E 5 3 5 . . . . . 5 g The Hlstorlc Foundations of the German Universities. ; z E 3 B Professor HERMANN ONCKEN, Munich. Z z y ' E (Dpinions may differ about the share that German science and the German spirit Z 1 5 have had lll the general intellectual development of the world. One fact, however, E Z appears incontestable. It is that the share contributed by the Germans as a nation Z 2 is, in a specially high degree and more closely than in other countries, connected E 2 with the work accomplished by their universities. Z The German universities have, indeed, many features in common with the other western Z universities, with which the share the common root of their ori in. But the resent E , Y g Y P _ 2 a special type, distinguished by the impress of their manifold individual characteristics 3 and of the circumstances of their history. They illustrate the ever-changing current 5 of German national life. E Z The histor of the rowth of the German universities since their first foundation E , Y g . E in the fourteenth century covers a long period of time. Most of those dating from the Middle Ages are the creations of the various reigning princes. Thus the Ger- g man Emperor Charles IV. led the way as King of Bohemia, with the university of Z Prague in 1347, the Hapsburg princes in Austria followed with that of Vienna in 1356, E 2 the Electors of the Palatinate with that of Heidelberg in 1386. In the fifteenth cen- Z I tur universities were founded at Lei zi b the Electors of Saxon in 1409, Rostock E z y P .2 y y , 83