464 Hijivry qf C Lzriczztzzre Grotgfiyue and CHAPTER XXVII. GILLRAY.-HIS FiR5T ATTEMPTS.-Hrs CARICATURES BEGIN wrrn THE SHELBURNE MINISTRY.-IMPEACHMENT 0)? WARREN HAsT1NGs.-cA1u- CATURES 0N THE KING; " NEW WAY TO PAY '1-as NATIONAL D1zBT."-- ALLEGED REASON FOR G1LL1mY's HOSTILITY T0 THE KING.-THE KING AND THE LATER LABOURS.-- ms IDIOTCY AND DEATH. IN the year 1757 was born the greatell: of Englifh caricaturiits, and perhaps of all caricaturifls of modern times whofe works are known- James Gillray. His father, who was named like himfelf, James, was a Scotchman, a native of Lanark, and a foldier, and, having loll: one arm at the battle of Fontenoy, became an out-penfioner of Chelfea Hofpital. He obtained alfo the appointment of fexton at the Moravian burial-ground at Chelfea, which he held forty years, and it was at Chelfea that James Gillray the younger was born. The latter, having no doubt {hown {igns of artiitic talent, was put apprentice to letter-engraving ; but after a time, becoming difguited with this employment, he ran away, and joined a party of {trolling players, and in their company pa(Ted through many adven- tures, and underwent many hardthips. He returned, however to London, and received fome encouragement as a promifmg artiit, and obtained admiiiion as a Prudent in the Royal Academy-the then young inftitution to which Hogarth had been oppofed. Gillray foon became known as a deiigner and engraver, and worked in thefe capacities for the publilhers. Among his earlier productions, two illuftrations of Goldfrnith's " Deferted Village " are fpoken of with praife, as difplaying a remarkable freedom of enact. For a long time after Gillray became knoWn'as a caricaturiit he continued to engrave the deiigns of other artiits. The earliefl known caricature which can be afcribed to him with any certainty, is the plate entitled " Paddy on Horfeback," and dated in 1779, when he was twenty- two years of age. The "horfe" on which Paddy rides is a bull; he is feated