in Literature and Art. 159 CHAPTER SATIRICAL LITERATURE IN THE MIDDLE AGES._-JOHN DE HAUTEVILLE AND ALAN DE LILLE.iGOLIAS AND THE GOLIARDIC FOR PARODY._-PARODIES ON RELIGIOUS SUBJECTS. -_POLITlCAL CARICATURE IN THE MIDDLE AGE5.iTl-{E JEWS OF SATIRE.-POLITICAL SONGS AND POEMS. IN a previous chapter I have fpokeu of a clafs of fatirical literature which was entirely popular in its chara6ter. Not that on this account it was original among the peoples who compofed mediaeval fociety, for the intellectual development of the middlerages came almoft all from Rome through one medium or other, although We know fo little of the details of the popular literature of the Romans that we cannot always trace it. The mediaeval literature of weltern Europe was mofitly modelled upon that of France, which was received, like its language, from Rome. But when the great univerfity fyltem became eitablilhed, towards the end of the eleventh century, the fcholars of Weitern Europe became more direotly acquainted with the models of literature which antiquity had left them; and during the twelfth century thefe found imitators fo tkilful that fome of them almolt deceive us into accepting them for clailical writers themfelves. Among the firft of thefe models to attract the attention of mediaeval fcholars, were the Roman fatirilis, and the {tudy of them produced, during the twelfth century, a number of fatirical writers in Latin profe and verfe, who are remarkable not only for their boldnefs and poignancy, but for the elegance of their Ityle. I may mention among thofe of Englilh birth, John of Saliibury, Walter Mapes, and Giraldus Cambrenfis, who all wrote in profe, and Nigellus W'ireker, already mentioned in a former chapter, and John de Hauteville, who wrote in verfe.