Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

University of Pennsylvania, Department of Physiology
Bazett, H. C.
them to picture the differences between reflex responses 
in the spinal animal and those where the cerebellum and 
medulla oblongata are intact. Experiments are also 
made on the effect of raised intrapericardial pressure, 
on the relationship of intrapleural pressure to respiratory 
variations in blood pressure, on the effect of hemorrhage 
and infusion and of experimental aortic regurgitation, 
and on salivary secretion. In the mammalian work 
advantage is taken of the excellent diagrams and in¬ 
structions given in Sherrington’s Mammalian Physiol¬ 
ogy. Two copies of this book are lent to each group 
of six students during the course of this work, and they 
are expected to follow its instructions, with certain 
typed modifications which have been made in changing 
the experiments from decapitate or decerebrate prepa¬ 
rations to uretlianed animals, or in enlarging slightly 
their scope. A few other experiments are also included, 
namely, agglutination tests for determining the type 
of the red blood corpuscles, hematocrit measurements, 
hemolysis by hypotonic saline, and demonstrations of 
the methods available for recording simultaneously 
heart sounds, pulse curves, and electrocardiograph in 
man, and for observing intestinal and stomach move¬ 
ments by X-ray in man and decerebrate animals. 
These are conveniently included here, since they require 
no large animal supply and can be introduced at any 
time, should the supply of animals prove to be tem¬ 
porarily inadequate for the other work. 
The aim of the chemical section is to elucidate and 
coordinate in actual experimental work those physio¬ 
logical principles which are fundamentally of a chemical 
nature. By arrangement with the Department of 
Physiological Chemistry undue repetition is avoided, 
and, by the use of chemical methods that have already 
been learned, time is saved, thus allowing the scope 
of the experiments to be broadened. The methods 
and apparatus employed are of the accepted type, and 
an opportunity is supplied for emphasizing the im¬ 
portance of accuracy in technique, even though it is 
recognized that the methods are merely a means to the 
end of demonstrating the functional activities of the 
body. The quantitative point of view is therefore 
stressed and the student is encouraged to exercise a 
critique of his own work. No prescribed amount of 
work is insisted upon, so that a student may concen¬ 
trate on a few of the experiments, and may have the 
satisfaction of having done a few things as well as possi¬ 
ble in the time available. Throughout the preliminary 
work this principle has been applied as far as possible, 
and the students have been given one day. in each week 
for revision, but in the work of this section, the plan is 
developed to a still greater extent. Assignments of 
work for each day for each group of students are posted 
in the laboratory at the beginning of the work; they 
are modified later, however, in accordance with the 
progress of the groups and the apparatus available. 
On the last few days the students, as groups of four 
or more, must either suggest some topic for intensive 
study or select from a posted list a subject which may 
be studied by the methods learned. The report on this 
work includes a short review of the literature. A repre¬ 
sentative of each group reads before the section of his 
class the paper prepared by that group. Discussion 
of these papers is encouraged. This method has proved 
stimulating and has yielded an enthusiasm and degree of 
effort beyond expectation. 
The topics covered in this section, for all of which the 
students act as subjects, are: minute volume of respired 
air under various conditions; analysis of respired air 
(Haldane-Henderson apparatus); basal metabolism 
(Tissot and Douglas bag method) ; respiratory exchange 
in exercise and after food; alveolar air analysis under 
various conditions; determination of the several factors 
of acid-base equilibrium in the body (blood, urine, and 
alveolar air) ; reaction of the organism to CO2 and low 
O2 tensions; various methods of upsetting the acid- 
base equilibrium of the body, i.e., by forced hyperpnea 
and ingestion of sodium bicarbonate or of ammonium 
chloride; tests of kidney function by phenolsulphone- 
plithalein or urea ingestion; sugar tolerance tests (blood 
and urine analysis) ; analysis of gastric contents; demon¬ 
stration of hunger contractions. In order to facilitate 
further the division of the work of the section, there is 
also included in it a Bârâny chair for demonstration of 
labyrinthine stimulation. Some observations are also 
made on skin sensations. 
The work of this section has proved to be the most 
valuable part of the whole course since it enables the 
student to some extent to apply fundamental principles 
to the human body. It has been developed through 
the initiative of Dr. S. Goldschmidt, who should receive 
full credit for the high standard attained. 
It will be noticed that the experiments performed in 
the practical work deal mainly with subjects which are 
either of fundamental clinical importance, or else employ 
a technique in common use in clinical laboratories. In 
performing them the student is made to use apparatus 
which is sufficiently accurate for research work, for 
great stress is laid on accuracy. In such experiments 
as the Bârâny chair, for instance, which would seem at 
first sight to be clinical rather than physiological, the 
emphasis is laid on the fundamental principles involved 
rather than on any clinical application. Thus the stu¬ 
dent may be taught to consider the fundamental prin¬ 
ciples involved in clinical tests, and at the same time he 
may become familiar at an early stage of his training 
with methods he will see employed later. In this 
way time may be saved and the heavy schedule be


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