Volltext: A Handbook of Phonetics

approximation not to (th) but to (rh)—(sh) is, in fact, (s) 
arrested on its way to (rh). This is done by retracting 
the tongue somewhat from the (s) position, and pointing 
it more upwards, which brings the tip more into play. 
Hence Mr. Bell’s designation of 4 point-front/ the prece¬ 
dence of point implying predominance of the point 
element. The name is ambiguous for reasons analogous 
to those stated under (s). 
The normal position for (sh) is naturally between that 
of (s) and (rh)—near the arch. ( sh) is formed inside the 
arch, (sh) near the teeth-rim. (sh), like (rh), cannot be 
formed on the teeth, and being further removed from 
them than (s) has less of the sibilant character, and con¬ 
sequently bears a close resemblance both to (rh) and 
(sh) occurs in E., as in 4 she,’ 4 fish in F., as in 4 chat/ 
4 cacher and in G., where it is generally labialised, in 
4 schön,’ 4 fisch.’ Outer (sh) occurs in E. in the combina¬ 
tion (tsh), as in 4 church,’ medium (t) being formed nearly 
as much forward as (sh). The French (sh) seems to be 
more forward than the E. 
115. zh (blade-point-open-voice). E. 4 rouge,’ 4 plea¬ 
sure ’; F. ‘juge,’ where it is more forward, (zh) in E. 
(dzh), as in 4 judge’a. 
a It will be seen that the above account of the mechanism of (s) 
and (sh) agrees essentially with Mr. Bell’s. Mr. Bell’s son how¬ 
ever has transposed the Visible Speech symbols for (s) and (sh), and 
other phoneticians seem inclined to agree with him, chiefly, it ap¬ 
pears, on the ground of the frequent development of (sh) in language 
out of (s) followed by (j). But I think any one who will take the 
trouble to pronounce (s) and (sh) before a looking-glass, throwing 
a light at the same time into the mouth, will not fail to see that 
the point of the tongue is clearly directed upwards in the change 
from (s) to (sh). Theories of the historical development of sounds


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