Volltext: A Handbook of Phonetics

4 back ’ quality to their retention of the inner rounding of 
the back rounded vowels. 
Extended List of Key-Words. 
62. The following extended list of key-words arranged 
under each vowel will, it is hoped, be useful to students, 
especially those who have to learn the sounds without a 
master. The contractions are the same as those already 
used in the general table (§ 43), with the addition of Da. 
= Danish, Du. = Dutch, Sw. = Swedish, Icel. = Icelandic. 
Each wide vowel follows immediately after its narrow. 
63. v (high-back-narrow). According to Mr. Bell this 
vowel occurs in the Gaelic laogh (tvi). It also occurs in 
Armenian (as pronounced to me by Prof. Sievers), for 
example, in the definite article (vz). This vowel, which 
offers difficulties to those who are not familiar with it, is 
best obtained by unrounding (u), following the analogy of 
the change from (o) to (b), and checking the result by 
raising (b) to the high position. 
64. A (high-back-wide). According to Bell in the 
Cockney pronunciation of long 0, as in (nA[oh]) = ‘ no.’ 
It seems also to occur sometimes in the (ai) diphthong, as 
in (Aijyh]) =‘1/ more commonly (eh[ih]). 
65r b (mid-back-narrow). English 4 up,’ 4 come,7 &c. 
Often tends to widening, (up) becoming almost (ap). 
66; a (mid-back-wide). E 4 father/ 4 papa’; N. G. 
4 vater/ 4mann’; Sw. 4 man/ This vowel is liable to 
considerable fluctuations. It may be lowered nearly to 
(a), as in Italian and Spanish, where it is difficult to 
decide between (a) and (a). It may also be advanced 
almost to the (eh) position, the point of the tongue being


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