Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

express themselves in high tones and forcible utterance, 
and increased vehemence of emotion is always accom¬ 
panied by a rise in force and pitch. 
289. The association of force and quantity is less 
intimate. There is, however, a natural tendency to pass 
over the less important unaccented elements of speech, 
and to dwell on the prominent stress-syllables, whence 
that shortening of unaccented long, and lengthening of 
accented short syllables which is so common in modern 
290. It is, however, an entire mistake to suppose that 
these natural tendencies represent necessities, and that 
high tone and strong stress can be regarded as convertible 
terms. Just as on the piano the lowest note in the bass 
can be struck with the same force as the highest one in 
the treble, so in language it often happens that strong 
stress is combined with low pitch, and vice-versa. Still 
less can quantity be identified with stress. 
Voice-quality (timbre). 
291. Besides the various modifications of stress, tone, 
&c., the quality of the voice may be modified through 
whole sentences by various glottal, pharyngal, and oral 
292. The most important are those known as the 
‘ clear ’ and the 1 dull ' qualities of the voice. The latter 
is due to lateral compression, the former to its absence. 
There are, of course, various intermediate degrees, and 
the dull quality may be exaggerated by cheek and lip 
rounding, as we hear in the pronunciation of those badly- 


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