Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

270 
PLANCHETTE* 
function and structure, supposed, cannot result in the formation 
of something fundamentally different from that which has been 
thus modified. It lias been shown, that it is not the possession 
of speech which constitutes man’s superiority over the animal 
world, but the faculty of spiritual perception ; the exercise of 
which underlies both human language and every other phase 
of culture by which man is distinguished. This is a power 
wholly dissimilar from any the animal world possesses; and 
no modification, therefore, of the animal organization could 
evolve it. 
“ Reference to ‘a plan of ascensive development ’ will not 
meet the difficulty when ‘new and special endowments’ are 
admitted; for, according to the principle laid down by Herbert 
Spencer, that ‘ function is antecedent to structure,’ those endow'- 
ments can exist only in response to a preceding functional ten¬ 
dency. This principle, moreover, directly contradicts the 
reasoning of Professor Huxley, that a functional difference 
which is ‘ vastly unfathomable, and truly infinite in its conse¬ 
quences,’ has arisen from a small structural change. The modi¬ 
fication of the organism must have been preceded by that of the 
function ; and as the latter is itself dependent on something 
which the lower animals do not possess, it is absolutely impossi¬ 
ble that either the function or the structural differences which it 
precedes can have been evolved simply out of an animal organi¬ 
zation. . . . 
“There must be an antecedent functional tendency, or there 
can be no formation of organic material, much less of a spe¬ 
cialized organism. The very fact of the existence of organisms, 
so different in their vital phenomena, as the animal and the 
plant, both of which are made up of the same chemical ele¬ 
ments, proves the existence of tzvo different fundamental tenden¬ 
cies, which cannot be explained by any peculiarity of combination 
of those elements, since the function is antecedent to all such 
combination, and directive of the form it shall take. Suppos¬ 
ing, then, specific organized forms are accompanied by peculiar 
arrangement of their chemical elements, which take the form
        

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