Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

for trying the experiment may often be found in the com¬ 
parison of a modern rectangular casement of church-warden 
architecture with the flowing tracery of an adjacent flam¬ 
boyant window. The first symptom of nascent architectural 
taste in English villas and cottages may be traced in the 
introduction of an arched door-way, a rounded alcove, or a 
bow window. In this faint emotional difference we have the 
simplest origin for the distinction of graceful and awkward 
The necessity for variety gives us another supplementary 
basis, more purely optical, but largely mixed with intel¬ 
lectual elements. Sameness in outline will demand con¬ 
tinuous exertion of the same muscles, combined with con¬ 
tinued stimulation of the same retinal points. Variety in 
figure implies variety in stimulation. Hence, in part, the 
pleasure which we feel in looking over a field of vision full 
of varied and novel forms and colours ; as well as the 
converse discomfort of flatness, monotony, and uniformity in 
shape and hue. 
Again, the eyes are specially restless organs, not only 
laterally and vertically, but also in their focus for nearer and 
further distances. When we are obliged to keep our eyes 
fixed for a considerable period upon a single point, as in 
having our photographs taken, the effort is extremely 
fatiguing. So too a look-out from a window upon a 
straight flat wall, besides its intellectual meagreness, tires 
us by the uniformity of focus which it demands. Hence in 
architecture a façade on a single plane is very wearisome : 
we require porticos, arches, projecting turrets, and other


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