Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

periods exactly or very closely coincide with their own, in 
which case a sympathetic vibration is set up and augmented 
by the recurring impacts of the air-waves. In the labyrinth 
of the ear we find sets of nervous structures which apparently 
answer to each of these conditions. In its outer portion, 
known as the vestibule, and in certain of its windings called 
the ampullæ, are nervous terminations whose construction 
leads us to suppose that they are readily excited in sympathy 
with irregular agitations of short duration : and the sensa¬ 
tions aroused in connection with these stimulations are co^- 
nized in the auditory centre as Noises. The deepest recess 
of the labyrinth consists of a snail-shaped cavity known as 
the cochlea, on whose walls are arranged an immense number 
of small bodies, called after their discoverer Corti’s organs, 
each of which, apparently, is capable of sympathetic vibration 
only under the influence of a regular undulation whose 
periodic recurrences closely coincide with its own natural 
period. These bodies are connected with separate fibres, and 
when the stimulations thus received are communicated to the 
brain they are cognized as Musical Tones. 
Again, air-waves of either class may differ in size, or, as 
it is offener expressed, in amplitude of oscillation ; that is 
to sa}r, in distance from crest to crest. Upon this objective 
difference in the waves depends the subjective difference of 
Loudness and its opposite. When the waves are very great 
in size, the resulting sound is said to be very loud : as the 
size diminishes, the sound becomes less and less. In short, 
loudness is the subjective concomitant of intensity in stimu¬ 
lation. It does not depend upon the particular fibres excited,


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