Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

OF THE PONS VAROLII, 
625 
therefore, were not lost, but merely the faculty of combining the actions 
of the muscles in groups; and the endeavours of the animal to maintain 
its equilibrium were like those of a drunken man. The experiments 
afforded the same results when repeated on all classes of animals, and 
from them Flourens infers that the cerebellum belongs neither to the 
sensitive nor to the intellectual apparatus; and that it is not the source 
of voluntary movements, although it belongs to the motor apparatus: 
the infliction of wounds on it does not, however, he says, excite convul¬ 
sions, as when other motor apparatus, such as the spinal cord and me¬ 
dulla oblongata, are wounded; —but the removal of it destroys the force 
of the movements, and the faculty of combining them for the purposes 
of locomotion,—the faculty of the co-ordination of the movements. If 
this view be correct, the cerebellum must contain a certain mechanism 
adapted to the excitement of the combined action of muscles, so that 
every disturbance of its structure must destroy the harmony between 
this central organ of combined motions, and the groups of muscles with 
their nerves. It is also to be remarked, that injury to the cerebellum 
always produces its effects on the opposite side of the body. 
These observations of Flourens have been confirmed by Hertwig, 
who found that the cerebellum itself was insensible; that irritation of 
it excited no convulsions; and that though lesion of it interfered with 
the combination of movements, the senses and all the other functions 
were not thereby affected. Hertwig, however, remarked, that if the 
mutilation of the cerebellum had been partial only, its function was 
restored. He also found that removal of one side of the cerebellum 
affected the-movements of the opposite side of the body. 
M. Magendie states that hedgehogs and guinea-pigs, in which he had 
extirpated both cerebrum and cerebellum, rubbed their nose with their 
paws when vinegar was held to it. He asserts, also, that, when the 
wound was inflicted on the cerebellum, the animal made an effort to 
advance, but was compelled by an inward force to retrograde. Injury 
to the crus cerebelli or processus adpontem, and of the pons itself, upon 
one side, always caused the animals to roll over towards that side. The 
same effect was produced by every vertical section which involved the 
medullary mass lying over the fourth ventricle, but it was seen in the 
most marked degree as the result of injury of the crus. Sometimes, 
M. Magendie says, the animals made sixty revolutions in a minute, and 
he has seen this movement continued for a week without cessation. 
These are not convulsive movements, but are voluntarily performed, 
as if under the influence of an internal impelling force, or as if the 
animals were attacked with vertigo. Division of the second crus cere¬ 
belli is stated by M. Magendie to restore the equilibrium. Hertwig 
also observed in a dog in which the pons Varolii was wounded on the 
right side, that similar revolutions of the body towards the same side 
were performed, and one eye was turned upwards while the other was 
turned downwards. Superficial wounds of the pons were, in Hertwig’s 
experiments, attended with moderate pain; he believes each half of the 
pons to influence the opposite half of the body. No convulsions were 
caused by irritating it. 
The restiform bodies belong to the medulla oblongata; injury inflicted 
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