Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

456 THE CUTANEOUS TRANSPIRATION. 
the minute spiral follicles, or sudoriferous canals, discovered by Pur¬ 
kinje and Breschet. which are distributed over the whole surface of 
the skin. 
Quantity of the cutaneous transpiration.—Since the laborious 
researches of Sanctoriusç who instituted ingenious experiments for 
the purpose of ascertaining the quantity of the# matters lost by exha¬ 
lation, more exact investigations have been carried on with the 
same view by others, especially by Lavoisier and Seguin. (Mèm. 
de VAcad. des Se. 1790.—Ann. de Chim. t. 90.) The result of their 
inquiries was, that during a state of rest the average loss by cuta¬ 
neous and pulmonary exhalation in a minute is from seventeen to 
eighteen grains,—the minimum eleven grains, the maximum thirty- 
two grains. To ascertain the amount of the cutaneous and pulmonary 
transpiration separately, Seguin enclosed his body in a bag or dress 
of silk covered with elastic gum, open at the top and provided with 
a copper mouth-piece. The bag, or dress, being closed by a strong 
band above, and the mouth-piece adjusted and gummed to the skin 
around the mouth, he was weighed, and then remained quiet for 
several hours, after which time he was again weighed. The differ¬ 
ence in the two weights indicated the amount of loss by pulmonary 
exhalation. Having taken off the air-tight dress, he was immediately 
weighed again, and a fourth time after a certain interval. The dif¬ 
ference between the two weights last ascertained gave the amount 
of the cutaneous and pulmonary exhalation together; by extracting 
from this the loss by pulmonary exhalation alone while he was in 
the air-tight dress, he ascertained the amount of cutaneous transpira¬ 
tion. The repetition of these experiments during a long period with 
great care afforded the following results:— 
1. However much the quantity of the food may vary, the weight 
of the body, if not subjected to exertion, returns in twenty-four hours 
to about the same standard; so that, 
2. If under otherwise similar circumstances the quantity of the 
food varies, or if, the quantity of the food remaining the same, the 
loss by exhalation is different, the solid and fluid excretions are pro- 
portionably increased or diminished. 
3. When digestion is imperfect, exhalation is less active. 
4. Digestion being good, the quantity of the food has no great 
influence on the amount of exhalation. 
5. The exhalation is least abundant immediately after food is 
taken. 
6. But the greatest loss of weight from exhalation takes place 
during digestion. 
7. The maximum loss by exhalation, cutaneous and pulmonary, 
in twenty-four hours, is 5 lb.; the minimum, 1 lb. 11 oz. 4 dr. 
8. The cutaneous transpiration is influenced both by the state of 
the atmosphere and by the state of the body itself. 
9. The mean loss by exhalation in a minute is 18 grains, of which 
11 grains pass off by the skin, 7 by the lungs. 
Dryness of the atmosphere has the effect of increasing the ex¬ 
halation from the skin and lungs, which process has a cooling
        

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