Volltext: Elements of Physiology

irregular, and for this reason the enamel parts must alternate with 
the osseous parts; this sort of surface compelling horizontal motion 
or grinding the food to pieces, the articulation of the jaw cannot form 
a hinge so close as in carnivorous animals; it must be flattened, and 
correspond with the facing of the temporal bones, more or less flat¬ 
tened; the temporal cavity, which will only contain a very small 
muscle, will be small and shallow.” * 
b. Of the membranes forming the coats of the alimentary canal. 
The alimentary canal has an external serous investment derived 
from the peritoneum, a muscular coat lying under the serous coat, 
and a tunica propria, which forms a kind of fascia, or framework, 
on the outer surface of which the muscular fibres lie, while to its 
inner surface the mucous membrane is attached. 
The structure of the villi of the small intestine has been already 
described, and their relation to the process of lacteal absorption dis¬ 
cussed. (See pages 271-2.) 
The glands of the mucous membrane of the intestinal canal 
remain to be considered. Three forms of these glands have been 
1. The follicles of Lieberkühn—foramina, or depressions, so 
small as not to be visible without the aid of a glass, which are 
spread over the whole extent of the mucous membrane of the small 
intestine, and are in such number that when sufficiently magnified 
they give to the membrane the appearance of a sieve. (They have 
been already described at page 272.) To the same class, perhaps, 
belong the simple tubular follicles described by Dr. Boehm (De 
Gland. Intestin. Struct. Penit. Berol. 1835,) as occupying the 
whole extent of the mucous membrane of the large intestine, and 
represented by him as seen in a section of the membrane to be ar¬ 
ranged perpendicularly side by side, their cæcal bases resting on the 
subjacent vascular membrane, while their orifices, which are so 
minute as to be scarcely visible without the aid of a glass, are sepa¬ 
rated by spaces but little larger than the openings themselves. There 
are other follicles of the large intestine which are larger and much 
less numerous, and which, under the name of glandulæ solitaries, 
have been confounded with the duodenal glands of Brunner. Their 
form is that of a simple round cavity. They are most numerous in 
the cæcum and appendix. 
The mucous membrane of the stomach has a structure somewhat 
similar to that described by Boehm, as belonging to the large intes¬ 
tine. It has been made the subject of examination by Dr. Sprott 
Boyd.* He describes it as having here and there a velvety appear¬ 
ance, from the presence of minute folds, or fold-like villi, but as 
being throughout characterised by small regular cells, the diameter 
of which was generally from t0 3Tôtb °f an inch; but near the 
pylorus T^th of an inch. In the bottom of the cells a number of 
* Inaugural Essay on the structure of the mucous membrane of the stomach, by 
Sprott Boyd. Edinb. 1836.


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