Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Optical Projection: A Treatise of the Use of the Lantern in Exhibition and Scientific Demonstration
Wright, Lewis
focus than the central rays. But when we use a simple lens 
to form an image, there are other results from this. Referring 
to fig. 15, it will be seen that the image mm of the arrow m m 
is really brought to its focus upon a concave surface instead of 
Fig. 15.—Spherical Aberration 
a plane ; or conversely, the diagram or picture m m must be 
drawn upon a concave surface to produce a flat image mm, an 
expedient actually employed in early solar microscopes. 
Fig. 16.—Distortions of Image 
The curved image maybe more or less ‘ flattened,’ as it is 
called, by adopting a meniscus form for the lens, as shown in 
fig. 14 by the various achromatics b, c, e. But we are now 
confronted with another result of aberration, in the form of the


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