Volltext: Optical Projection: A Treatise of the Use of the Lantern in Exhibition and Scientific Demonstration

is equally focussed upon the screen, from end to end. To all 
‘line ’ work of any kind this is particularly essential ; and it 
is never the case unless the lens is specially adjusted for it. 
The simplest method is to hold a fine wire across the slit ; 
and then to adjust the lens for focus, and incline the lens, 
until the shadow of the wire appears as a black line equally 
sharp from one end to the other of the spectrum. 
176. The Light.—A jet of the most powerful kind should 
be used, with plenty of pressure and the very best limes. 
Only thus can respectable results he obtained with the oxy- 
hydrogen light. 
The arc-light requires modification. The positive carbon 
(crater) must be the loiver one for spectrum work ; and both 
carbons should be perpendicular and in line. The Brockie 
lamp can be used without difficulty, by inserting a wedge- 
shaped block under it so as to bring the carbons upright ; and 
the current may be reversed by providing an extra special 
carbon-holder for the lower pole, which must protrude con¬ 
siderably. The lower carbon cannot then feed up to the 
usual stop, and therefore the focus will have to be adjusted 
from time to time, by the screw motion of the table. Spec¬ 
trum experiments do not, however, require any very great 
accuracy in focus-keeping ; and most demonstrators prefer 
a simple hand rack-regulator, moving the two poles in due 
proportion, and which, with a screw table as described in 
Chapter XII. will answer all purposes, at a small cost. Such 
hand-regulators are certainly best for the large excavated 
carbons presently mentioned, and allow of the length of arc 
being varied with much greater facility. 
177. Simple Absorption.—For solutions, thick glass cells, 
including some made of a wedge shape, are very convenient, 
as showing the effect of stronger and stronger absorptions in 
coloured media. With the two prisms and the spectrum 
nicely focussed, the definite and local character of colour- 
absorption may be contrasted with the general absorption


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