Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Optic Projection: Principles, Installation and Use of the Magic Lantern, Projection Microscope, Reflecting Lantern, Moving Picture Machine
Gage, Henry Simon and Henry Phelps Gage
While mirrors had been used in the camera obscura for changing the position 
or causing the images to appear erect, so far as known at present, no one used a 
projection lens in the aperture of the dark room until 1568. In that year was 
published the work on perspective by Daniel Barbaro, and on p. 192, Ch. V, he 
directs that to make the image more brilliant, a convex spectacle glass be put 
in the aperture, and that a white paper screen be moved back and forth until 
the picture shows most clearly, then it can be traced. From this time onward 
a proj'ection objective has always been used, except for experiments, such as 
with pin-hole photographic cameras, etc. 
In the camera obscura considered above, the observers were in the room 
where the picture was formed. For a small, movable camera, something like 
the photographic cameras of the present, where the observer is outside the 
Camera box, the first description found by us is the one of Robert Boyle, and 
dates from 1669. He called it a “A Portable Darkened Room,” and says that 
it had already been exhibited to many friends several years before the paper 
was written. 
O a 
Fig. 403. Walgensten’s Magic Lantern (1665). 
(From Millietde Choies, Mundus s. Cursus Mathematic us, 1674, vol. ii, p. 666) 
Here is a naked light with a reflector behind it. There is no condenser. 
The object is put in the proper inverted position before the objective, and the 
image appears erect and enlarged on the screen. 
The third form of projection apparatus consists of a relatively small instru¬ 
ment in which a small object is brilliantly illuminated, and the light from it 
extends out through a projection lens or objective and forms a relatively large 
image on a white wall or screen in a dark place. 
The third form is the converse or conjugate so to speak of the camera obscura 
where the object is large and the image small.


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