Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Optic Projection: Principles, Installation and Use of the Magic Lantern, Projection Microscope, Reflecting Lantern, Moving Picture Machine
Gage, Henry Simon and Henry Phelps Gage
[Ch. IX 
substage condensers, and without oculars; but they realize that 
in laboratory work and for some special lectures to small classes it 
is of the highest advantage to be able to show pictures of photo¬ 
graphic sharpness in all details. For this it is necessary to use, first 
of all, a substage condenser which will give a light cone of sufficient 
aperture for the details; and secondly there must be a proper 
screen, i. c., the screen must be very white and very smooth, but 
not shiny (§ 409, 621). White cardboard answers well. Finally 
there must be an ocular used, and the observers must be near 
enough the screen to sec the fine points. 
Fn;. 15<».\. Achromatic, Si BSTAf.E Condenser with 
Centering Screws. 
(From Zeiss' Catalogue). 
There has been a segment of the condenser eut away to show the construc¬ 
The centering screws (r-s, r-s) enable the operator to get the condenser in 
the optic axis of the microscope. The iris diaphragm for this condenser is 
between the lower and middle combinations, not below the condenser as with 
the Abbe form. 
This form of condenser is especially desirable for projection and for photo¬ 
The substage condenser for micro-projection must either be of a 
sjiccial form to use with the main condenser of the apparatus or 
special means must be employed to utilize the light cone from the 
main condenser when the ordinary- substage condenser is used. 
This is because the substage condenser ordinarily used on micro¬ 
scopes is designed for approximately parallel beams of light, not 
for those markedly converging or diverging. By examining the 
figures of the light cone from the main condenser it will be seen


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