Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Titel:
Optic Projection: Principles, Installation and Use of the Magic Lantern, Projection Microscope, Reflecting Lantern, Moving Picture Machine
Person:
Gage, Henry Simon and Henry Phelps Gage
PURL:
https://digitalesammlungen.uni-weimar.de/viewer/image/lit39438/277/
Ch. IX] OBJECTS FOR MICRO-PROJECTION 269 
Large Tube (fig. 121) 
! 
Magnification with:— 
Object 
Size of Object 
Objective 
5 Meter 
Screen 
7.5 Meter 
Screen 
10 Meter 
Screen 
Pvloric Stomach .... 
20 to 30 mm. 
70 mm. 
72 
107 
143 
Medulla and Olives 
15 to 25 mm. 
60 mm. 
85 
127 
l68 
Scalp ............. 
12 to 22 mm. 
50 mm. 
101 
155 
205 
Human Spinal Cord 
10 to 14 mm. 
35 mm. 
142 
218 
285 
Thyroid ........... 
8 to 12 mm. 
30 mm. 
167 
250 
330 
Adrenal ........... 
3 to 8 mm. 
20 mm. 
253 
380 
500 
Ordinary Microscopic Objectives 
Large Tube (fig. 121) 
Section of Lung or 
! 
Arterv .......... 
4 to 5 mm. 
16 mm. 
322 
488 
650 
Neural Plate of Am- 
1 
blvstoma......... 
2 to 4.3 mm. 
12.3 mm. 
385 
590 
750 
T ran section of 
Trachea......... 
2 to 3.7 mm. 
10 mm. 
454 
700 
900 
Striated Muscle Longi 
and Transections 
i to 2.3 mm. 
8 mm. 
i 640 
940 
1280 
Nerve Cells in Spinal 
Cord............ 
i to 2 mm. 
1 6 mm. 
760 
1120 
1460 
Goblet Cells of Intes- 
tine, Mucicarmin 
1 
Stain............ 
1 to 1.2 mm. 
4 mm. 
1080 
1600 
2180 
Silvered Endothelium 
0.2 to 0.4 mm 
2 mm. 
2600 
1 3820 
5080 
§ 399a. The preparations listed in the above table are simply examples of 
objects which can be shown entire with the different objectives without oculars. 
In practice any good microscopic preparation and many living things can be 
shown with the projection microscope. 
For the complete understanding of any specimen it is necessary to see it as 
a whole and then by using higher and still higher powers (§ 391 ) to get views of 
finer and finer details. 
In demonstrating the finer details one can show but a very small specimen or 
a small part of a large specimen. For large specimens it is a great advantage to 
have objectives of different powers on a revolving nose-piece so that it takes 
only a moment to turn from one to the other. If only the large condenser is 
used (fig. 121) the objective remains practically stationary, but the specimen 
must lie on a movable stage so that it can be farther from the objective or 
nearer to it depending upon the focal length of the objective (fig. 132). 
If one uses substage condensers the stage remains stationary and a long 
focus substage condenser is used for low powers and a short one for high powers 
and the objective is placed at approximately its focal distance from the object. 
It must be remembered that many living things are soon destroyed by the 
intense light necessary for projection. While the circulation of the blood seems 
an ideal demonstration with the projection microscope it is found in practise to 
be a very poor way to demonstrate it. If this is tried the microscope in a ver¬ 
tical position (fig. 147) is convenient. The screen distance should not be very 
great (3 to 5 meters, 10 to 16 ft.). In the author’s experience the demonstra¬ 
tion of blood circulation under a microscope is vastly superior to anything that 
can be done with a projection microscope.
        

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