Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Collected Papers On Acoustics
Sabine, Wallace Clement
tone with pronounced upper partials. Take, for example, the 
“night horn” stop in a pipe organ. This is intended to have a very 
pure tone. The room in contributing to its purity would improve 
its quality. On the other hand, the mixture stop in a pipe organ is 
intended to have very pronounced overtones. In fact to this end 
not one but several pipes are sounded at once. The effect of the 
above room to emphasize the fundamental and to wipe out the 
overtones would be in opposition to the original design of the stop. 
To determine what balance is desirable must lie of course with the 
musicians. The only object of the present series of papers is to 
point out the fundamental facts, and that our conditions may be 
varied in order to attain any desired end. One great thing needed 
is that the judgment of the musical authorities should be gathered 
in an available form; but that is another problem, and the above 
bare outline is intended only to indicate the importance of extend¬ 
ing the work to the whole range of the musical scale, -— the work 
undertaken in the present paper. 
The method pursued in these experiments is not very unlike that 
followed in the previous experiments with C4 512. It differs in minor 
detail, but to explain these details would involve a great deal of 
repetition which the modifications in the method are not of sufficient 
importance to justify. 
Broadly, the procedure consists first in the determination of the 
rate of emission of the sound of an organ pipe for each note to be 
investigated. This consists in determining the durations of audibil¬ 
ity after the cessation of two sounds, one having four or more, but 
a known multiple, times the intensity of the other. From these 
results it is possible to determine the rate of emission by the pipes, 
each in terms of the minimum audibility for that particular tone. 
The apparatus used in this part of the experiment is shown in Fig. 1. 
Four small organs were fixed at a minimum distance of five meters 
apart. It was necessary to place them at this great distance apart 
because, as already pointed out, if placed near each other the four 
sounded together do not emit four times the sound emitted by one. 
This wide separation was particularly necessary for the large pipes 
and the low tones; a very much less separation would have served 
the purpose in the case of the high tones.


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