Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

are inclined to consider as being at rest tbat 
which we fixate and to interpret the relative 
changes in the field of vision as movements of 
those parts which we do not fixate. 
Bnt it is different when we come, for in¬ 
stance, to those illusions in which movement 
is forced on our perception by contrast and 
aftereffect. We look from a bridge into the 
flowing water and if we turn our eyes toward 
the land the motionless shore seems to swim 
in the opposite direction. It is not sufficient 
in such cases to refer to contrasting eye 
movements. It can easily be shown by ex¬ 
periments that these movements and counter¬ 
movements in the field of vision can proceed 
in opposite directions at the same time and 
no eye, of course, is able to move upward and 
downward, or right and left, in the same mo¬ 
ment. A very characteristic experiment can 
be performed with a black spiral line on a 
white disk. If we revolve such a disk slowly 
around its center, the spiral line produces the 
impression of a continuous enlargement of 
concentric curves. The lines start at the 
center and expand until they disappear in the 
periphery. If we look for a minute or two 
into this play of the expanding curves and


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