Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

On the sensations of tone as a physiological basis for the study of music. Translated with the author's sanction from the third German edition, with additional notes and an additional appendix by Alexander J. Ellis
Helmholtz, Hermann von
Part III. 
might be looked upon as a minor scale with a major Seventh, and 
both a major and minor Sixth, but then the Fifth 0 is wrong. On 
the other hand, if F is taken as the tonic, it has no Fourth, for 
which certainly there is some analogy in the Mixolydian and 
Hypolydian scales. The instructions for scales of eight notes are 
very contradictory, to judge by the different authorities cited by 
The following four are distinguished as the principal modes of 
the Makamat : — 
1. Uschak = Pythagorean F major 
2. East = Natural mode of the Fourth of (7, or natural F 
major with acute Sixth. 
3. Husseini=Natural mode of the minor Seventh of F. 
4. Hidschaf= Natural mode of the Fourth of F.1 
We find then a decided predominance of scales with a perfectly 
correct natural intonation, which has been attained by a skilful 
use of a continued series of Fifths. This makes the Arabic and 
Persian tonal system very noteworthy in the history of the develop¬ 
ment of music. Moreover, in some of these scales we find ascend¬ 
ing leading notes, which are perfectly foreign to the Grreek scales. 
Thus in Rahewi, F is the leading note to F, although the minor 
Third A\) stands above F, while no Grreek scale could have allowed 
this without at the same time changing F into F\). Similarly in 
Zirefkend the B is used as a leading note to (7, although the minor 
Third E\) is used above G. 
At a little later period a new musical system was developed in 
Persia with twelve Semitones to the Octave, analogous to the 
modem European system. Kiesewetter here hazards the very 
unlikely hypothesis that this scale was introduced into Persia by 
Christian missionaries. But it is clear that the system of 17 tonal 
degrees which had been previously in popular use, merely required 
the feeling for the finer distinctions to grow dull so that intervals 
1 [These four Arabic inodes on the left are those previously marked 1, in note to 
p. 433, and 4, 5, 6 in note to p. 434, in the notation of App. XIX. But the four scales 
named on right in the text, would be in the same notation—- 
1. F — G— f A — Rb — c — d — fe — f 
2. C — %D — E — F — G — f A - Rb— c 
3. F — %G — Ab — Rb — fe — \d — eb — f 
4 .-F ■ %G — A — Rb — c — %d — eb — f 
And on comparing, it is seen that (1) and (4) agree entirely with Uschak and Hidschaf, 
but (2) differs from Rast as before laid down, by having f A for A, and again (3) 
differs from Husseini in having 'fe for e.— Translator.]


Sehr geehrte Benutzer,

aufgrund der aktuellen Entwicklungen in der Webtechnologie, die im Goobi viewer verwendet wird, unterstützt die Software den von Ihnen verwendeten Browser nicht mehr.

Bitte benutzen Sie einen der folgenden Browser, um diese Seite korrekt darstellen zu können.

Vielen Dank für Ihr Verständnis.