Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Hugo Münsterberg. His Life and Work
Münsterberg, Margaret
the process of change from the given to the not-given—to 
the process itself, and not to the resulting state. Develop¬ 
ment “is not being, but becoming.” This becoming de¬ 
pends upon the will, and the will is the ethical element. 
In the outer world or nature, development is manifest 
as growth, in the fellow-world or society as progress, in 
personality as self-development. The cultural values of 
achievement are served in the outer world by industry, in 
the fellow-world by law, in the inner world by morality. 
The philosopher emphasises that the kind of ethics which 
refers only to the content of will and deed is still at a pre¬ 
moral point. Beal morality involves the choice between 
opposite courses. The critical life-situation in which 
values may be either upbuilt or destroyed, and either the 
one action or the other must be chosen and carried out— 
that is the field for morality. 
Finally, the threefold valuation, the logical, æsthetic, 
and ethical, would fill life with * ‘ the tension of . . . oppos¬ 
ing forces ’ ’ in the conflict of values, if they were not some¬ 
how reconciled and harmonized. Hence the demand for 
the values of completion or the metaphysical values. In 
immediate life-experience this unifying value is sought in 
religion ; the conscious elaboration of its principle through 
the effort of civilization is sought in philosophy. Thus 
both religion and philosophy “aim to apprehend the 
worlds of values as ultimately identical with each other.” 
The unifying values of religion and philosophy, which 
the philosopher calls the values of holiness and the values 
of absoluteness, “demand a progression over the limits 
of the experienceable. ’ ’ This transcendent or over experi- 
ence has not existence in the sense in which subjects and 
objects have existence, but it is the content of convic¬ 
tion. In religion the conviction that transcends experi¬ 
ence is belief. The complete harmony of values religion 
creates is manifest in the outer world by creation, in the 


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