Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Hugo Münsterberg. His Life and Work
Münsterberg, Margaret
and sociological material is required, that is, the develop¬ 
ment of art production is traced from the earliest begin¬ 
nings of savages, even from the similar pursuits of animals. 
For the second group direct experiments in æsthetic enjoy¬ 
ment are made in the laboratory. Indeed, æsthetic emo¬ 
tions are excellent material for experimental study as, un¬ 
like those of practical experience, they are independent 
of individual circumstances. From the fruits of such ex¬ 
perimentation the teacher of art may profit somewhat, for 
from them some prescription may be deduced for achiev¬ 
ing æsthetic results. The study that pertains to the crea¬ 
tion of art, however, is not desirable for specific educa¬ 
tional use. Psychology cannot make a genius, not even a 
man of talent. Moreover, the artificial adoption of a 
pseudo-primitive style and other fads in schools shows the 
need of a wholesome attitude that must be instilled not by 
psychological study, but by a firm belief in the ideals of 
beauty. “ Truth and beauty represent duties, logical and 
æsthetical duties, just as morality represents ethical 
duties/’ And “whoever understands art as wnll-function 
believes in art and appreciates it as a world of duties.” 
Psychological aids may be useful in the teaching of art, but 
belief in absolute values is essential. 
In the essay on “Psychology and History” the author 
has shown the difference in attitude between the two 
sciences toward their material. The real difference between 
psychology and history is a difference of aim. In psychol- 
ogy, as in physics, every object is considered as the cause of 
an expected effect, and laws are types of causal connection. 
For this purpose objects are transformed into combinations 
of elements. History, too, reconstructs life into a complete 
system in the service of connection: this is not a causal 
system, however, but a teleological system of individual 
will relations. The antithesis between psychology and 


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