Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

The Quality of Sensation: Vision
Titchener, Edward Bradford
§ 14- The Visual Qualities 61 
increasingly reddish, as we travel to the right-hand end of 
the spectrum. Here is a fourth line of qualities, but a line 
which in the spectral series is left incomplete at violet If 
we continue it, by adding the purples and carmines, we are 
finally brought back to our starting-point, — the red of the 
extreme left We notice, however, that this red is not, in 
reality, the starting-point of a psychological colour-line; it 
is not a pure red, but an orange-red ; the red that stands 
at the beginning of the red-yellow line lies outside the 
spectrum, toward the carmines. 
All the colours that can be distinguished upon these four 
lines are ultimate qualities of visual sensation. We speak, 
it is true, of pure red and of orange-red ; but these terms 
merely indicate the position of the qualities upon a colour¬ 
line : pure red comes at the beginning, orange-red towards 
the middle of the line. No orange-red can be analysed, by 
introspection, into a red and an orange. The lines them¬ 
selves, and with them the system of colour qualities, are 
most simply arranged in the form of a square, with Rt K, 
G and B at the four corners. 
So far, then, we have a single straight line to represent 
the sensations of light, and four straight lines, forming the 
closed figure of a square, to represent the sensations of 
colour. But so far, also, we have dealt with sensations of 
colour only under one aspect, — that of colour-tone or hue. 
Colours, as was said above, differ further from one another 
as darker and lighter. Thus, in the spectrum, yellow is 
undoubtedly the lightest, and violet the darkest colour. 
Here, then, is a second attribute of colour, the attribute of 
light-tone or tint, in virtue of which a sensation of colour 
may be matched or equated with a sensation of light. Let 
us assume that all the hues upon the lines of our colour*


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