Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

The Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology, vol. 5: Supplementary Volume
Todd, Robert Bentley
greater, and divided into two,—a small fleshy 
bundle proceeding from the anterior extremity 
of the sternum to the lower part of the 
humerus, and a larger mass coming off 
from the whole length of the sternum pos¬ 
terior to the former, its fibres passing ob¬ 
liquely forward to be inserted into the external 
tuberosity of the same bone. There is an ad¬ 
ditional muscular slip in the Sheep and Horse, 
by the action of which the crossing of the 
fore-legs is produced ; this is denominated by 
hippotomists the ambibrachialis communis. Cu¬ 
vier remarks the same muscle in Cetacea. 
Corresponding to the scapular division of the 
deltoid in the human subject, there is, in ru¬ 
minants and solipeds, a muscle called the ab¬ 
ductor longus brachii or abd. brach, superior ( 14, 
fig. 350.) ; it generally exhibits two points of 
Fig. 352. 
Superficial layer of muscles of the fore limb of the 
Ox. (From Gurlt.) 
1, supra-spinatus ; 2, infra-spinatus ; 3, abductor 
brevis ; 4, anconeus longus ; 5, exten. cubiti lon¬ 
gus ; 6, ancon, externus ; 7, brachialis intemus ; 
8, deltoides ; 9, 9, exten. carpi radialis ; 10, ab¬ 
ductor pollicis; 11, 11, extensor digit, longior; 
12,12, exten. digit, brevior; 13, 13, flexor carpi 
ulnaris externus. 
: attachment above, one at the spine of the 
scapula, and the other from the infra-spinous 
fossa. On their passage down, the fibres 
coalesce, and become inserted by a common 
tendon into the linea aspera of the humerus. 
The external scapular muscles, viz., the supra- 
spinatus ( 1, fig. 352-) and infra-spinatus (2), 
are powerfully marked in this order ; the 
former is implanted by a double tendon of 
insertion into the anterior and internal tuber¬ 
osities of the humerus, the latter being con¬ 
nected below to the external tuberosity. The 
round muscles have the same attachments as 
in man, but the teres major or t. externus (3, 
fig. 353.) is in Ruminantia and Solipeda smaller 
than the teres minor or t. interims (2,fig> 353). 
The sub-scapularis (2, 2 fig. 353.) is of large 
size, and subdivided. 
The coraco-brachialis (fi,fig' 353.) is always 
present, although there be no indication of a 
coracoid apophysis ; the greater part of the 
muscle lies deep, and is connected to the 
inner border of the upper half of the humerus, 
the remainder lying more superficially, and 
continuing as far as the internal condyle 
into which it is implanted. The biceps brachii 
coraco-radialis or flexor cubiti longus (10, fig. 
353.) has a similar disposition to its analogue 
in Man ; but in Carnivora and Solipeda, where 
the coracoid process is absent, it exhibits but 
one head. In the Bear, according to Cuvier, 
the absent division is represented by a mus¬ 
cular slip passing off from the coraco-brachi¬ 
alis. Meckel states that in the Camel and 
Dromedary the apparently single tendon of 
origin arises from the margin of the glenoid 
cavity as usual, but it is very thick, and can 
easily be separated into two portions, which 
are united only by cellular tissue. These, as 
they pass over the head of the humerus, 
swell out and enclose between them a sesa¬ 
moid body consisting of fibro-cartilage ; the 
external of the tendons is the larger, and also 
subdivides, giving off a strong tendinous cord 
which becomes incorporated with the anti- 
brachial aponeurosis. The brachialis intemus, 
or flexor cubiti longus ('ft fig• 352. and 11, fig- 
353.), is comparatively weak. In the typical 
ruminant it rises from the posterior and ex¬ 
ternal part of the neck of the humerus, but in 
the Camel it commences lower down from the 
middle third of the bone, its tendon of inser¬ 
tion in all cases being anterior to that of the 
long flexor. The divisions of the triceps ex¬ 
tensor cubiti are described under different 
names by hippotomists, but this disposition 
is similar to that of Man. The extensor cubiti 
longus (5, fig. 353.) is the extensor magnus of 
Bourgelat ; the extensor brevis is the extensor 
médius of the same author, and the anconeous 
longus of Gurlt ; the brachialis externus is the 
extensor brevis of the former and the anconeus 
externus of the latter. There is also another 
muscle termed by Gurlt the anconeus interims 
(7,/%. 353.). . 
The Ruminantia and Solipeda are generally 
described as possessing neither supinators nor 
pronators, but the above-named author figures 
in the Ox a small muscular bundle, which he 
calls the pronator teres (13, fig. 353.) ; and 
moreover Meckel points out the rudiments of 
this muscle in the Camel, remarking at the 
same time that its function is no longer that 
of a pronator but of a flexor. The extensor 
carpi radialis (9, fig. 352.) is single in the Ca-