Volltext: The Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology, vol. 4: Pla [corr.: Ple] - Wri (4)

there is one perfect heart, with some imperfect 
part or parts of another attached to it. 
11. The eleventh group of this division 
includes the cases of lateral duplicity, in 
which the body is single in the middle, but 
doubled above and below (or in brutes ante¬ 
riorly and posteriorly). In these, which are 
of rarer kinds, a single neck bears two more 
or less completely separated heads. The 
vertebral column is for a considerable length 
single, but at its lower part again divides, and 
bears two sets of lower extremities. 
12. In the twelfth group the body is single 
above and doubled below. 
13. In this there is a tendency towards 
singleness, or even complete singleness, of the 
head, but all parts of the trunk and all the limbs 
are doubled, an arrangement by which, as al¬ 
ready stated, these form a series entirely dis¬ 
tinct from the rest. In some of these cases 
the two heads are found coalesced below ; in 
others, to which the name of janiceps has 
been given, one face is directed backwards 
and the other forwards, the remainders of the 
two heads being merged into one ; in others, 
one face is perfectly, the other very deficiently, 
developed ; in others there are only the indis¬ 
tinct traces of a second head presented in the 
existence of one or two ears on the posterior 
aspect of the more perfect one ; in others, 
this trace of duplicity is still less evident ; 
and, lastly, in the remainder of the group, it is 
entirely lost, and one head only, which may 
be well or ill formed, is found upon the 
double body. 
3. Inferior duplicity. 
My third division of double monsters in¬ 
cludes the cases in which there are two com¬ 
plete bodies with the lower portions of their 
respective trunks united, so that there is a 
head with upper extremities both above and 
below (the bodies being placed in the same 
straight line) and on either side of the part 
at which they meet two lower limbs. One 
may best conceive this arrangement by sup¬ 
posing two children stuck together by their 
buttocks, and so fixed with wide-spreading 
lower limbs, as may be seen in fig. 146. of the 
second volume of this Cyclopaedia. A com¬ 
mon body is thus formed with a head at each 
end, with two upper limbs both above and 
below, and with two lower limbs, one belong¬ 
ing to each foetus on the right and two on the 
left of the united portions. A few cases only 
of this remarkable monstrosity are recorded ; 
and in these the duplicity was not always 
complete, but exhibited in some the same 
tendency towards singleness as was noticed 
in the others. Thus in some there were but 
three lower extremities ; in others there were 
but two, or two with a third ill-developed on 
the other side: and, again, in other groups 
there were those which have a perfect head at 
one end of the trunk, but an imperfect one or 
none at all at the other. 
These monsters have been known to live a 
considerable time, their capacity for life being 
probably owing to the separation of the hearts 
and the absence of malformation in the more 
important organs of the body. The umbilical 
cord is single, and never has a double set of 
vessels ; an apparent proof (confirmed by si¬ 
milar examples in other classes) that the one 
body is not formed of the materials of two ; a 
conclusion which is supported by the coinci¬ 
dent singleness of the anus and urinary blad¬ 
der, and the union of the intestinal canals. 
4. Posterior duplicity. 
The fourth chief form is posterior duplicity, 
in which two bodies are united by their 
backs, or a part of them. The union may be 
at the pelvis (which is most common), and 
occurred in the well-known Hungarian sisters, 
who lived to their twenty-second year ; or at 
the back of the vertebral column, or at the 
back part of the heads. 
5. Superior duplicity. 
The fifth is the superior duplicity, in which 
the two children are connected by their skulls, 
the bones of which are united so as to form a 
single skull. In these also the place of union 
varies greatly. The frontal bone of one coa¬ 
lesces with the parietal or the occipital of the 
other, or the foreheads are attached to one 
another, or the side of one head to the front 
of the other. But all these are very rare, and 
of each kind only one or two examples can 
be found on record. 
All these are true double monsters. Of 
trip/ed-bodied monsters but one instance is 
known in the human subject (Atti dell’ Acade¬ 
mia de Cattania., t. viii. p. 203., 1834). 
To conclude the description of duplicity, 
those which occur in individual parts of the 
body, the rest being single, viz. in the head, 
chest, abdomen, and limbs, ought to be re¬ 
corded ; such as, for example, two mouths, su¬ 
pernumerary teeth and horns, two oesophagi 
or duodena, double hearts, or supernumerary 
cavities in one heart otherwise well formed, a 
double penis and urethra, a double clitoris, 
supernumerary breasts, kidneys, vertebrae, ribs, 
fingers, toes, or whole limbs. But for all 
these I refer to my monograph. 
At present I prefer to give all those con¬ 
siderations upon the origin of double mon¬ 
sters, of which this highly interesting subject is 
capable. From all the facts I have published, 
I point out the following generalisations : — 
The double monsters form collectively one 
class of organic beings, which, however dif¬ 
ferent in their several degrees of malforma¬ 
tion, may be arranged in one continued series. 
As the lowest degree of duplicity, may be 
mentioned that of a single part of the body ; 
for example, a double or supernumerary fin¬ 
ger ; as the highest, a complete double mon¬ 
ster with two heads, four upper and four 
lower limbs, and two trunks, such as the 
Siamese twins. And between these two ex¬ 
tremes there are different forms of duplicity, 
which gradually run one into the other. 
There is no positive or constant relation 
between the external and the internal organs 
as to their degrees or modes of duplicity. In 
the completest duplicity of the exterior, for


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