Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

The Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology, vol. 4: Pla [corr.: Ple] - Wri
Todd, Robert Bentley
peculiar and sarcastic wit to this absurd 
aetiology, and gives the very ludicrous ac¬ 
count of a surgeon who supposed that the 
Sireniform monster had been formed during 
a very difficult delivery. If it is, on the 
contrary, an original malformation, it may be 
asked, what can be its remote cause ? Is it 
the original want of one of the umbilical ar¬ 
teries ? I should not think so ; for one of these 
arteries is also wanting in the variety in 
which all the parts of the two extremities are 
present, and we know that one of them may 
* be wanting in a completely well-formed child. 
(See p. 948.) Another question is, whether 
sympodia can be attributed to the coalescence 
of the inferior extremities (Meckel, Kamm, 
Boerhave, and Cruveilhier). Neither am I in¬ 
clined to adopt this cause. 
1. I cannot imagine a coalesence of bones 
so complete, that through these could be 
formed one single extremity. 
2. It is impossible to explain by it the im¬ 
perfect condition of the leg and of the foot 
in the majority of cases. 
3. From such a fusion or coalescence can¬ 
not be derived the imperfect state of the 
rectum, and of the sexual and uropoietic or¬ 
It seems to me more probable that sym- 
podia is due to some original malformation 
of the pelvis and its viscera, of which the 
cause remains unknown. The formation of 
a head solely, of an incomplete trunk without 
the lower limbs, or of a single inferior ex¬ 
tremity, is certainly to be attributed to nothing 
else but impeded developement. It shows, 
moreover, that the different parts of the body 
are quite independent of each other in their 
original formation. 
e. Original defective formation of the pelvis. 
In a well constituted body the pelvis may be 
originally malformed, as is proved b}r the oh* 
liquely narrow pelvis of Nazele, and by the 
transversely narrow pelvis of Robert ; of which 
malformation the cause is to be found in the 
imperfect formation of the sacrum. 
f. Defective developement of the spinal 
column. This has been principally observed 
in calves. It is too short, defective, more or 
less incurvated, and some of the vertebrae 
fused together. The head is situated at a 
short distance from the thorax ; the tail and 
the anus are reflected to the dorsal surface ; 
the pelvis is too narrow, and turned upwards 
at its posterior part. 
VII. Defective Formation of the Extremities. 
The origin of many malformations of the 
limbs may be referred to the early periods 
of embryogenesis. But for some of them this 
is impossible. 
1. Want of all the extremities is an arrest of 
developement at that period, in which the 
limbs are not yet formed, and in which small 
tubercles occupy their places. Sometimes the 
superior extremities only are. wanting, which 
urges the inferior extremities to acquire a sort 
of dexterity by which they may in some mea¬ 
sure supply the place of the superior limbs* 
Of all the examples which are known of it, 
that of Thomas Schweicker is the most me¬ 
morable. The inferior limbs only are rarely 
Fig. 624. 
3 (i 3


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