Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

The Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology, vol. 4: Pla [corr.: Ple] - Wri
Todd, Robert Bentley
In such instances, there is little appearance 
of any thing morbid beyond the increase of 
size. The contained blood is usually very 
dark, and the spleen shares the deepening of 
colour. By long duration, the capsule of the 
organ and the fibrous tissues generally, be¬ 
come somewhat thickened, but in other re¬ 
spects the texture is little altered. In the 
second class, in which the swelling is pro¬ 
bably produced by a peculiar state of the 
blood (dysci'asia), and is certainly associated 
with a class of blood diseases, the texture of 
the organ is usually much altered. The size of 
the spleen is often astonishingly increased, so 
that it possesses a volume of from 100 to 300 
cubic inches, and a weight of 10-20 lbs. The 
increase includes, besides blood, a considerable 
quantity of a fibrinous material, the nature of 
which, and its relations to the healthy organ, 
are at present little known. The colour and 
consistence are of every possible gradation ; 
from greyish to deep brownish red, or from 
a soft, friable mass, to a dense, firm, and 
almost fibrous texture. There is a general 
relation of these changes to the date and 
duration of the swelling ; thus in acute or 
recent cases, the organ is usually soft and of 
a dark colour, while by long continuance, or 
in chronic diseases, its consistence is greatly 
increased, and its colour, as well as that of 
the contained blood, is much paler or greyer 
than natural. Atrojphy of the spleen, or slow 
and permanent diminution of its size, is much 
more infrequent than the preceding converse 
condition. It is associated with similar 
varieties of colour and consistence. 
Inflammation of the spleen. — The peritoneal 
surface of the organ shares in the diseases of 
this structure generali)’, and an inflammation 
of this part of the serous membrane not un- 
frequently accompanies the enlargements pre¬ 
viously mentioned. The exsudation and re¬ 
sults are no way peculiar. Concerning in¬ 
flammation of the parenchyma of the spleen 
little can at present be said. The large and 
numerous veins which it contains are liable 
to inflammation, the secondary being the 
more frequent form of phlebitis which affects 
As regards other morbid products, organ¬ 
ised and unorganised, the spleen offers no¬ 
thing deserving a special notice. 
Bibliography. — M. Malpighi, De Liene, in 
Exercitationibus de Yiscerum Structura, Lond. 
1669. 12. F. Ruysch, De Glandulis, Fibris, Cellu- 
lisque Lienalibus, Epist. Anat. Quart. Opera omnia. 
A. V. Leeuwenhoek, Microscopical Observations on 
the Structure of the Spleen, Phil. Transact. 1706, 
p. 2305. T. Douglass, Observations on the Glands 
in the Human Spleen, Phil. Transact. 1714, p. 499. 
W. Stuckeley, Of the Spleen, its Description and 
History, Uses and Diseases, Lond. 1722. B. S. 
Albinus, De Liene, in Anotat. Academ. lib. vii. 
cap. 14. p. 84. De Lasbne, Histoire Anatomique de 
la Rate, Mémoires de l’Academ. de Paris, 1754. T. 
IAeutaud, Observation sur la Grosseur Naturelle de 
la Rate, Mem. de l’Acad. de Paris, 1788. W. Hew- 
son, Experimental Inquiries, Lond. 1776; et Opus 
Posthumum, Lugd. Bot., 1786. L. et T. P. Asso- 
lanti, Recherches sur la Rate, Paris, 1801. A. Mores- 
chi, Del vero e primario Uso della Milza nell ’Uomo 
e in tutti gli Animali Vertebrati, Milano, 1803. 
Benj. Bush, An Inquiry into the Functions of the 
Spleen, &c., Philadelphia, 1806. Everard Home, 
On the Structure and Uses of the Spleen, Philos. 
Transact, for 1808, p. 45. ; further Experiments on 
the Spleen, p. 133. ; Experiments, &c., ibid. 1811. 
C. F. Heusinger, Ueber den Bau und die Verrichtung 
der Milz, Eisenach, 1817. F. Tiedemann und L. 
Gmelin, Versuche über die Wege, auf welchen Sub¬ 
stanzen aus dem Magen und Darm im Blut gelan¬ 
gen, über die Verrichtung der Milz und die gehei¬ 
men Haniwege, Heidelberg, 1820. T. Hodgkin, On 
the Uses of the Spleen, Edinb. Med. and Surg. 
Journ., 1822, p. 83. Dobson, Lond. Med. and Phys. 
Journal, 1830, Oct. G. C. Holland, Physiology of 
the Foetus, Liver, and Spleen, London, 1831. T. 
Muller, Ueber die Structur der eigenthümlichen Kör¬ 
perchen in der Milz einiger pflanzenfressender Säu- 
gethiere, Müll. Arch., 1834. T. C. H. Giesker, Spleno- 
logie, oder anatomisch-physiologische Untersuchun¬ 
gen über die Milz, Zürich, 1835. M. T. Evans, Lond. 
Edinb. and Dubl. Phil. Mag., 1833. Nov. Schwager- 
Bardeleben, Observations Microscopicæ de Glandu¬ 
larum Ductu Excretorio carentium Structura, &c. 
Berol. 1841. Th. v. Hessling, Untersuchungen über 
die weissen Körperchen der menschlichen Milz, 
Regenzburg, 1842. I. Reid, Lond. and Edinb. 
Monthly Journ., 1843. Apr. Fr. Oesterlen, Beiträge 
zur Physiologie des gesunden und kranken Orga¬ 
nismus, Jena, 1843, pp. 41—52. E. Huschke, Lehre 
von den Eingeweiden und Sinnesorganen, Leipzig, 
1844. Schlemm, Berliner Wörterbuch der medicin. 
Wissenschaften, Band xxiii. Th. 435. Ch. Poelmann, 
Memoire sur la Structure et les Fonctions de la Rate, 
Annales et Bulletin de la Société de Médecine de 
Gand, 1846, Dec. C. Handfield Jones, On the Yel¬ 
low Corpuscles of the Spleen, Lond. Med. Gazette, 
1847, Jan. John Simon, On the Thymus Gland, Lond. 
1845. A. Kolliker, Ueber den Bau und die Verrich¬ 
tungen der Milz, in Mittheilungen der Züricher 
naturforschenden Gesellschaft, 1847. A. Ecker; 
Ueber die Veränderungen welche die Blutkörper¬ 
chen in der Milz erleiden, in Zeitschrift für rationelle 
Medicin, Band vi. 1847. C. B. Heinrich, Die Krank¬ 
heiten der Milz, Leipzig, 1847. T. Landis, Beiträge 
zur Lehre über die Verrichtungen der Milz, Zürich, 
1847. Gerlach, Ueber die Blutkörperchenhalten¬ 
den Zellen der Milz, in Zeitschrift für rationelle 
Medicin, Band vii. 1848. T. Bêclard, Recherches 
expérimentales sur les Fonctions de la Rate et sur 
celles de la Veine Porte, Archives Générales de Mé- 
dicine, Paris, 1848, Oct. Nov. Dec. 
( Albert Kölliker.') * 
tistical Method; the Numerical Method. La 
Méthode Numérique.— It is to be regretted 
that the use of numbers in any branch of 
scientific inquiry should have seemed to need 
a special name ; for the name has given rise 
to prejudices and misconceptions which could 
never have attached to the thing signified. 
There is no science which has not sooner or 
later discovered the absolute necessity of re¬ 
sorting to figures as measures and standards 
of comparison ; nor is there any sufficient 
reason why physiology and medicine should 
claim an exemption denied to every other 
branch of human knowledge. On the con¬ 
trary, they belong in an especial manner to 
the class of sciences which may hope to de¬ 
rive the greatest benefit from the use of num- 
* The Editor is indebted to his friend Dr. Brinton, 
for the translation of the article on the normal 
anatomy of the spleen from the German MSS. of 
Professor Kölliker, and for the sketch of the abnor¬ 
mal anatomy, 
3 F


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