Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

The Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology, vol. 4: Pla [corr.: Ple] - Wri
Todd, Robert Bentley
nates by forming as many tendons as there 
are caudal vertebrae without transverse pro¬ 
cesses. These tendons are received into 
sheaths resembling those upon the upper sur¬ 
face of the tail, and are inserted successively 
into the base of each caudal vertebra, be¬ 
ginning about the seventh. 
3. The intcrspinales inferiores {sub-caudales, 
inter-coccygeus of Vicq d’Azyr). These are 
situated beneath the mesian line of the tail. 
They commence underneath the articulation 
between the first and second caudal vertebra?, 
and form an elongated fleshy belly, which, in 
some quadrupeds that have the tail largely 
developed, become first of all implanted into 
V-shaped hones derived from the fourth, fifth 
and sixth vertebrae of the tail : they receive, 
moreover, from time to time additional fleshy 
slips, which go on continually diminishing in 
size, and give off tendons to be inserted suc¬ 
cessively into the inferior aspect of the base of 
each caudal vertebra. 
4. The pubo-coccygeus {pubo-sous-caudien). 
This is a thin muscle, derived from the whole 
extent of the upper margin of the pelvis, and 
having the appearance of a fleshy membrane, 
the fibres of which are gradually collected into 
one point to be inserted beneath the tail into 
tubercles situated upon the base of the fourth 
and fifth vertebrae. The action of this muscle 
will produce an effect similar to that of the 
The muscles adapted to move the tail later¬ 
ally are arranged in two sets. 
1. The iscliio coccygeus externus -(ischio- 
caudien) arises from the posterior or internal 
surface of the ischium, a little below and be¬ 
hind the cotyloid cavity, from which origin it 
runs backwards to be inserted into the trans¬ 
verse processes of the anterior caudal vertebrae. 
This muscle is improperly called by Stubbs 
the levatorani, because in the horse a fewfibres 
of it are connected with the termination of 
the rectum. 
2. The intertransversales {intertransversal of 
Vicq d’Azyr) extend in the form of mus- 
eulo-aponeurotic layers over all the transverse 
processes that are developed in the caudal 
region, their tendons of insertion being most 
distinctly seen upon the upper surface of the 
In animals that have the muscular appa¬ 
ratus of the tail completely developed the 
muscles are found to consist of eight distinct 
sets,—viz., two superior, two lateral, and two 
inferior. In the horse some of these are de¬ 
ficient, or exist only in a rudimentary con¬ 
dition. To see them in their full state of de¬ 
velopment they must be examined in animals 
provided with long and mobile tails, such as 
the prehensile-tailed monkeys, the opossums, 
the lion, and, more especially, in the kangaroo 
and beaver. 
Muscles derived from the spinal column which 
serve immediately for the movements of the 
cranium. — These have nearly the same origins 
as in the human subject, but are comparatively 
of much greater strength, owing to the inclined 
position of the head with respect to the ver¬ 
tebral column. They may be divided into 
such as proceed, 1st, from the atlas ; 2nd, 
from the axis ; and, 3rd, from the posterior 
cervical vertebrae and ligamentum nuchæ. 
To the first set belong — 
1. The rectus capitis posticus minor, or rather 
médius, arising, as in the human subject, from 
the atlas ; from this origin it runs to be in¬ 
serted by a short and broad tendon into the 
The other muscles belonging to the atlas — 
namely, the rectus anticus, the rectus lateralis, 
and the obliquus superior—offer the same 
position as in the man. 
The muscles derived from the axis — viz. 
the rectus posticus major &nd the obliquus in¬ 
ferior— are likewise similarly disposed in all 
quadrupeds. ' 
The muscles arising from the other cervical 
vertebrae are 
The complexus, which, commencing from 
the upper oblique process of the third ver¬ 
tebra of the neck, continues its origin from 
all the oblique processes of the neck below 
that point, as well as from the upper oblique 
process of the first vertebra of the back, also 
by a pretty strong tendon from the transverse 
processes of the seeond and third dorsal ver¬ 
tebrae ; from these origins it runs forwards to 
be inserted by a strong round tendon into 
the occiput close to its fellow of the opposite 
side : in this course it is connected by numer¬ 
ous tendinous processes with the ligamentum 
nuchae. That portion of the complexus usu¬ 
ally distinguished by the name of digastricus 
eolli is in the horse undistinguishable as a 
distinct muscle. 
The trachelo-mastoideus, or complexus minor, 
arises from the oblique processes of the third, 
fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh cervical and 
first dorsal vertebrae, and from the transverse 
processes of the second and third vertebrae 
of the back ; it runs forwards external to the 
last-mentioned muscles to be inserted by a 
strong tendon into the mastoid apophysis of 
the temporal bone. The above muscles are 
overlapped by the 
Splenius capitis {cervico-mastoideii), which, 
arising by strong tendinous processes from 
the spinous processes of the two superior 
dorsal and two last cervical, and also exten¬ 
sively from the ligamentum nuchæ, runs for¬ 
ward to be inserted into the transverse pro¬ 
cesses of the fifth, fourth, and third cervical 
vertebra, and into the transverse ridge of the 
occipital bone. It is remarked by Cuvier that 
in carnivorous quadrupeds the splenius is not 
inserted into the transverse processes of the 
cervical vertebra? as it is in herbivorous animals 
and in the human subject, in which the latter 
portion is sometimes sufficiently distinct to 
obtain the name of splenius colli in contra¬ 
distinction to the splenius capitis. It is like¬ 
wise remarkable that in the camel, if the 
splenius exists at all, it is extremely thin and 
difficult to display by dissection. 
Muscles of the ribs and stei'num. — The mus¬ 
cles derived from and inserted into the ribs 
and sternum are found in all quadrupeds to


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