Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

The Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology, vol. 4: Pla [corr.: Ple] - Wri
Todd, Robert Bentley
of tissues and organs, renders them soft and 
flabby; as will also infiltrations of certain 
morbid adventitious products. The com¬ 
pound granule cells found in acute softening 
of the brain, and mixed with pus in other 
situations, are described in the article on Ad¬ 
ventitious Products. Softening may be 
accompanied by atrophy, or by hypertrophy, 
which is generally produced bv simple conges¬ 
tion ; or no alteration of bulk may occur. 
Three degrees of softening are recognised : — 
in the first, the softened tissue is still solid, 
but it breaks down and tears and can be per¬ 
forated with ease ; in the second, all solidity 
is gone, nothing but a pultaceous semi-fluid 
mass is found ; and, in the third degree, the 
tissue is broken down and diffluent. 
Softened parts may retain their natural 
colour, or may be paler, or may have an in¬ 
crease of colour. Softening, without any 
change of tint, occurs in mucous and serous 
membranes, in the brain, heart, liver, and 
uterus. All post mortem softenings are of 
this kind, except where the colouring matter 
of the blood has tinted the effused fluids. 
In certain softenings of the brain the af¬ 
fected parts are much paler than usual, being 
of a dead white colour ; there is a diminution 
in the quantity of blood usually present in 
the diseased parts ; a like decrease of colour 
is found in other softenings. 
Generally, however, softening is accom¬ 
panied by reddening, or by an increased co¬ 
lour ; the tints may vary from a bright ver¬ 
milion to a brownish red, and may be seen 
as grey, almost black, and, occasionally, are 
yellow. These varieties of colour depend 
upon the amount of blood usually existing in 
the softened tissue, and upon the degree of 
congestion. The redness of softened tissues 
is occasionally partial, and merges into lighter 
tints as the tissue becomes harder. Partial 
effusions of blood, or highly injected vessels, 
are commonly found in red softenings. 
Induration, generally speaking, is to be re¬ 
garded as a symptom of previous or coexist¬ 
ing diseased states ; its physical condition 
varies much in its nature, in the same or in 
different tissues, as proved by microscopical, 
mechanical, and chemical analysis ; and both 
observation and experiment tend to prove, 
that it is produced by causes of a very oppo¬ 
site kind. 
Changes in the amount of fluid destined 
for the nutrition of a part, frequently give rise 
to induration ; an increased quantity of blood 
and a consequent increased deposit of solid 
structure, produce simple induration of many 
organs, which are liable to variations in the 
quantity of blood they may contain, for in¬ 
stance, the brain and spinal marrow, the 
cellular and muscular tissues ; also of denser 
structures, as bone, in -which the induration 
is occasionally extreme, and in fibrous tissues ; 
they produce also hardening of the lymphatic 
glands and of the salivary glands. The brain 
has been found to be increased to twice its 
natural density and consistence. Muscular, 
fibrous, and cellular tissues, become so hard, 
as to give out a grating sound when cut ; and 
the walls of some hollow organs, naturally 
soft and flaccid, acquire such a degree of firm¬ 
ness, that they preserve, when empty, a glo¬ 
bular or cylindrical form, and spring up with 
considerable force after sudden pressure ; 
and parts of bone acquire that degree of hard¬ 
ness, which has been termed eburneoid indu¬ 
ration. An increased quantity of the usual 
fluids of nutrition frequently gives rise to in¬ 
duration, differing from that just described, in 
not being attended by deposition of solids. 
The accumulation of blood in the vessels of 
the lungs and spleen, the result of congestion, 
produces, sometimes, a great degree of hard¬ 
ness and density of these organs. Diminution 
of the quantity of the same fluid, especially 
when there is also a compressing force, is 
also followed by an increase of consistence, 
and, generally, by a decrease in bulk of cer¬ 
tain organs ; in pleurisy, for instance, dense 
false membranes, by their pressure, compress 
the lung into a small space, and its tissue be¬ 
comes indurated from simple approximation ; 
for, on the removal of the compressing agents, 
the lung can be inflated. 
The inordinate increase and accumulation 
of the secretion of certain organs, as the 
mamma, testis, gall bladder, and kidney, pro¬ 
duce a degree of hardness, sometimes equal 
to that of dense tumors, arising from the in¬ 
compressibility of the fluids themselves, and 
the state of condensation of the walls of the 
organs in which they are accumulated. 
Effusions of serum and blood into the 
tissues from mechanical causes produce great 
distension and induration; such is the case 
in the oedema of the cellular tissue of the 
extremities in dropsy ; effusion of serum into 
the intermuscular cellular tissue produces 
hardening. Pulmonary apoplexy and ecchy- 
mosis in various organs, from a mechanical 
impediment to the return of blood to the 
heart, have a like effect. 
But inflammation of a sub-acute form is 
the great cause of induration, from the effu¬ 
sion of serum and coagulable lymph ; the 
former of which is absorbed, and the latter 
becomes “ induration matter,” whose proper¬ 
ties are described under the head of Adventi¬ 
tious Products ; this last product produces 
induration on account of its being actually 
denser than the tissues into which it is effused, 
and, also, by its compressing power, for it has 
the peculiarity of contracting and. becoming 
hard after its deposition. Certain morbid 
states of the blood, occasionally produce in¬ 
durations of certain organs. 
The changes of form, with which indura¬ 
tion may be connected, are numerous ; none 
may, however, occur ; the bulk also of in¬ 
durated structures varies ; it may remain un¬ 
changed, but, generally, it is increased, and 
more rarely, decreased. 
The colour of indurated parts, is generally 
different from the normal tint ; sometimes, 
owing to diminished vascularity, and to the 
presence of induration matter, it may be pale ; 
at others, owing to increased vascularity, and 
z z


Sehr geehrte Benutzer,

aufgrund der aktuellen Entwicklungen in der Webtechnologie, die im Goobi viewer verwendet wird, unterstützt die Software den von Ihnen verwendeten Browser nicht mehr.

Bitte benutzen Sie einen der folgenden Browser, um diese Seite korrekt darstellen zu können.

Vielen Dank für Ihr Verständnis.