Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

The Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology, vol. 4: Pla [corr.: Ple] - Wri
Todd, Robert Bentley
soluble in alcohol contains salivary matter, 
combined with soda, and its reactions accord 
perfectly with those of the salivary matter 
found by Gmelin in human saliva. Phosphate 
of potash, phosphate of soda, and a small 
proportion of carbonate of lime, also exist in 
this saliva. 
The saliva of the sheep, according to Ber¬ 
zelius, is clear, and not adhesive, like that of 
the dog. It has a feeble saline taste, and a 
faint alkaline reaction. When dried, it leaves 
P68 per cent, of solid matter, which forms an 
opaque white membrane, and becomes moist 
by exposure. Chloride of sodium is extracted 
from this mass, in octahedral crystals, by di¬ 
gestion with alcohol. The salts of iron yield 
ample evidence of the presence of sulpho- 
cyanogen in the alcoholic solution. The por¬ 
tion of solid matter insoluble in alcohol, when 
treated with water, yields little else than salts. 
So completely is this the case, that the eva¬ 
porated aqueous solution scarcely gives out 
an empyreumatic odour while being heated to 
redness. The mass, which is insoluble both 
in water and alcohol, is brittle and mem¬ 
branous, insoluble in acetic acid, and not 
gelatinised when moistened by it. The acid, 
however, dissolves out phosphate of lime, after 
which it is précipitable by the addition either 
of ammonia or oxalate of lime, but not by in¬ 
fusion of galls. 
The following is an analysis of the saliva of 
the sheep : — 
Water ----- 98*90 
Matters soluble in alcohol (ex¬ 
tract of meat, a matter which 
crystallises chloride of sodium 
in octahedra, chloride of so¬ 
dium, and a small proportion of 
sulphocyanide of sodium). . 0*11 
Matters soluble in water only 
(traces of ptyalin, a consider¬ 
able quantity of phosphate of 
soda and chloride of potassium, 
and carbonate of soda) - - 0'82 
Matters insoluble in water and 
alcohol (mucus or coagulated 
albumen, and a small quantity 
of phosphate and carbonate of 
The peculiar quality possessed by saliva of 
becoming mucilaginous and adherent, was at¬ 
tributed by Tiedemann and Gmelin to a solu¬ 
tion of mucus in alkaline carbonate. This 
last is present in the saliva of the sheep in 
such abundance, that when dry it effervesces 
on the addition of acids. The saliva of the 
dog, however, contains most, and the saliva of 
man the smallest quantity of the salt. Ac¬ 
cording to Tiedemann and Gmelin, the alkaline 
carbonate of human saliva is a potash salt, 
while the saliva of the dog and sheep contains 
carbonate of soda. 
The alkaline phosphate contained in saliva 
exists in larger proportion in that of man, and 
of the sheep, than in that of the dog. All 
three contain chloride of sodium in large 
quantity. The sulphocyanide which exists in 
the saliva of man and of the sheep cannot be 
satisfactorily detected in the dog. Ptyalin is 
almost wanting in the saliva of the sheep, 
while that of the dog is deficient in animal 
extractive matter. 
Lassaigne and Leuret found the same quan¬ 
tity, viz. about one per cent, of solid matters, 
in the saliva of man, the horse, and the dog. 
The saliva of insects has been collected by 
Reuzzer*, but not in quantity to admit of 
analysis. It was found, however, to yield an 
alkaline reaction. 
Salivary Calculi. — As the result, in all pro¬ 
bability, of some defect in secretion, the saliva 
occasionally gives rise to the formation of calcu¬ 
lous matter. Thus, what is commonly called 
tartar, tends to deposit upon the teeth. Ber¬ 
zelius has examined this substance, and found 
that water extracted ptyalin from it, and 
that the remainder was soluble in hydrochloric 
acid, only a small residue composed of mucus 
being left unacted upon. Caustic ammonia 
precipitated phosphate of lime, and ammo- 
niaco-magnesian phosphate from the acid 
Analysis yielded the following result : — 
Ptyalin - 
- P0 
Salivary mucus - 
- 12*5 
Earthy phosphates 
- 79-0 
Animal matter soluble in 
chloric acid 
- 7*5 
Yauquelin and Langier found one of these 
masses to contain 
Water ----- 0'07 
Salivary mucus insoluble in acids 
and in water - - - - 0*13 
Phosphate of lime, with traces of 
magnesia - 0'66 
Carbonate of lime - 0*09 
Animal matter soluble in hydro¬ 
chloric acid - - - - 0*05 
Salivary calculi only occasionally occur in 
the human subject, but are frequently ob¬ 
served in animals. One of these substances 
from the human subject yielded, according to 
the analysis of Poggiale, 94 per cent, of phos¬ 
phate of lime, the remainder being mucus and 
other animal matters. Wurzer found, in a 
concretion from the submaxillary gland of a 
man, carbonate of lime, earthy phosphates, 
oxide of iron, and manganese. 
Calculous concretions, obtained from the 
salivary ducts of the horse and ass, have been 
analysed by Lassaigne, Henry, and Caventon, 
with the following results : — 
* Physiol. Untersuch, über die thierische Haus¬ 
haltung der Insecten. Tüb. 1817. 
E E 2


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