Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

The Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology, vol. 4: Pla [corr.: Ple] - Wri
Todd, Robert Bentley
REN. 231 
muscles that effect pronation, fix the condyles 
of’ the humerus by any means, and then re¬ 
peat the examination of these angles. 
Pronation and supination may, however, 
be carried far beyond this limit of the radial 
motion ; aided by powerful rotation of the 
humerus inwards and outwards respective^, 
the surfaces will attain to complete opposition 
of direction, or 180 degrees of intervening 
angle, and even to a variable distance beyond 
this which is, on an average, almost another 
It deserves also to be noticed, that these 
movements are often converted into rotation 
around the axis of the lower part of the 
forearm and wrist, by a somewhat similar 
humeral movement. For example, simul¬ 
taneously with pronation, the lower end of the 
humerus is carried outwards and upwards, and 
a similar deviation is thus impressed on the 
ulna articulated with it, which extending to 
its lower extremity, results in the rotation of 
this part of the limb ,* i. e. in the completion 
of pronation, without the usual advance of 
the inner border of the forearm towards the 
median line of the body. 
Dislocations of these joints. — At the upper of 
the two radio-ulnar articulations either bone 
may be thrown out of its place in several 
directions. Displacements of the ulna, how¬ 
ever, chiefly affecting the elbow joint into 
which it so largely enters, are included 
amongst those of this part ; and though those 
of the radius are, both in nature and effects, 
accidents of the radio-ulnar articulation,_ in 
practice it is very difficult to avoid considering 
together injuries which have so close a re¬ 
lation, albeit, strictly speaking, an accidental 
one. Hence the reader is referred for these 
to the article “ Abnormal Conditions of the 
At the lower joint the radius and ulna may 
be displaced from each other by external 
force, or by the violent action of the muscles 
in extreme pronation or supination : but the 
latter is a very rare occurrence. Looking to this 
articulation only, it might be difficult to define 
which bone was dislocated : whether, for in¬ 
stance, the ulna was “ dislocated backwards,” 
or the radius “ dislocated forwards,” since, 
in such a case, either of these phrases would 
equally express their altered relation to each 
other. It is most convenient to consider this 
question determined by the condition of the 
neighbouring wrist joint, and to instance those 
cases as dislocations of the radius where the 
extremity of this bone is located unnaturally 
forwards or backwards, both as regards the 
carpus and head of the ulna. And, similarly, 
where the wrist and radius preserve their 
ordinary relation, but the lower end of the 
ulna is displaced with respect to both ; here it 
will be better to consider the ulna as. the 
luxated bone, even though the accidents might 
sometimes resemble each other in their causes 
as well as mode of production. 
The dislocation of the radius forwards is 
easily recognized by the styloid process of 
this bone and the trapezium no longer lying 
in the same vertical line ,* and by the situation 
of the extremity of the radius in front of the 
bones of the carpus, causing an unnatural 
prominence there. The luxation backwards 
would appear to be almost unknown, a reversal 
of these signs would indicate it. In both, the 
relative position of the ulna and wrist is little 
In the dislocation of the ulna, the ordinary 
connection of the hand and radius being kept 
up, the pronation or supination of the limb 
becomes a feature of a very striking kind. 
The signs of the luxation backwards are ex¬ 
treme pronation, the head of the ulna pro¬ 
jecting beneath the skin at the back of the 
forearm, and the styloid process of this bone 
occupying a line posterior to the border of 
the wrist or the cuneiform bone. The dis¬ 
location forwards is of extreme rarity, but 
the above marks, mutatis mutandis, would 
leave little room for doubt as to the nature 
of the accident. 
The diseases of these articulations offer no 
peculiarities which deserve a separate de¬ 
(William Br inton.) 
REN* — THE KIDNEY (Gr. vecppog ; 
Germ. Niere; Fr. Rein; It. Ren). — The 
kidney is a double gland, having for its office 
the secretion of a liquid which in common 
language is called urine. Since the time of 
Malpighi, the structure of this organ has excited 
in a more than ordinary degree the interest of 
the anatomist and the physiologist ; but this 
interest has been much increased by the re¬ 
searches of Mr. Bowman, whose admirable 
paper on the “ Structure and Use of the Mal¬ 
pighian bodies of the Kidney f,” while it has 
placed the kidney in the list of those organs 
whose anatomy is most clearly demonstrated, 
has acquired for its author a reputation which 
will endure so long as anatomical science is 
This article is divided into three parts ; the 
first part, containing a brief account of the 
general form and structure of the renal organs 
in the lower animals, as introductory to the 
second part, which contains an account of the 
anatomy and physiology of the human kidney, 
with references to such facts in the minute 
structure of the kidneys of some of the lower 
animals as will serve to throw light upon the 
structure and office of the organ in man. The 
third part contains an outline of the pathology 
of the kidney. 
* In explanation of the use of the Latin word 
Ren as the heading of this article, the Editor deems 
it necessary to state, that the article was undertaken 
some years ago by a gentleman who failed to com¬ 
plete his engagement in time for its publication 
under the title Kidney ; it was found necessary, 
consequently, to postpone the subject, and to adopt 
the present title. The article was subsequently 
committed to other hands, in which it shared a simi¬ 
lar fate to that which it experienced at first, and it 
ultimately fell into the hands of its present able 
author. — Ed. 
j- Philosophical Transactions, 1842. 
q 4


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