Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

The Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology, vol. 4: Pla [corr.: Ple] - Wri
Todd, Robert Bentley
styloid process, arising from the non-anchj 
losis of the stylo-hyal bone. 
Fig. 800. 
Front, side, and basal views of the skull of the Trog¬ 
lodytes gorilla. (After Owen.) 
“ 10. The larger post-glenoid process, and 
the longer auditory process (tympanic bone), 
with their relative position, one behind, but 
not below, the other. 
“ 11. The position of the stronger zygo¬ 
mata opposite the middle third of the basis 
“12. The prominent supra-orbital ridge. 
“ 13. The longer nasal bones, anchylosed 
together, and flattened at their lower half. 
“ 14. The greater proportional size, and 
greater prominence of the upper and lower 
“ 15. The longer osseous palate, and the 
median emargination of its posterior border. 
“ 16. The parallelism of the alveoli of the 
molars and canine of one side, with those of 
the other. 
“17. The diastema, or vacant place, in 
front of the socket of the canine in the upper 
jaw, and behind that socket in the lower 
“ 18. The larger and more produced pre- 
maxillaries, the persistence of more or less 
of their sutures, showing the intervention of 
their upper extremities between the nasal and 
maxillary bones. 
“ 19. The minor extent of connection of 
the lachrymal with the * pars plana ’ of the 
æthmoid, or their separation by the junction 
of the orbital plate of the maxillary with that 
of the frontal behind the lachrymal. 
“ 20. The depth of the olfactory fossa, and 
the absence or rudimental state of the crista 
“21. The squamosal, lambdoidal, alisphe- 
noidal and pterygoid air-cells. 
“ 22. The more prominent cusps of the 
molar teeth. 
“ 23. The larger relative size, and more 
complex grinding surface of the last molar 
tooth in both jaws. 
“ 24. The larger relative size of the pre¬ 
molars, especially of the first. 
“ 25. The more complex implantation of 
the premolars by three roots, two external 
and one internal. 
“ 26. The much larger and longer canines. 
“ 27. The sexual distinction in the develop¬ 
ment of these teeth. 
“ 28. The more sloping position of the 
crowns of the incisors. 
“ 29. The broader and higher ascending 
ramus of the lower jaw. 
“ 30. The total absence of the prominence 
of the symphysis forming the chin. 
“ In the form of the premaxillaries, and the 
earlier obliteration of their sutures,” Prof. 
Owen continues, “ the smaller chimpanzee 
more nearly resembles man than the great 
gorilla does ; it seems also to deviate less 
through the minor development of the canine 
teeth, and of the parietal and sagittal crests ; 
but it has been shown, in the comparison of 
the skulls of Troglodytes gorilla and T. niger, 
that the latter departs in more numerous and 
important particulars further from the human 
Now, of the foregoing characters, some of 
those which constitute the most striking fea¬ 
tures in the cranium of the Chimpanzee, are 
those which must be admitted from analogy 
to be liable to variation under the influence


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