Volltext: The Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology, vol. 4: Pla [corr.: Ple] - Wri (4)

URINE. 
1289 
rC 
<D . 
Ö 
— 
O 
s 
O 
13 o 
oS 
PQ 
fc 
Hco 
Under 10 years 
of age 
136 
83 
281 
500 
Between 10 and 
20 
65 
21 
106 
192 
20 and 30 - 
35 
21 
48 
104 
30 and 40 - 
34 
12 
48 
94 
40 and 50 - 
37 
28 
47 
112 
50 and 60 - 
28 
21 
96 
145 
60 and 70 - 
18 
9 
70 
97 
70 and 80 - 
2 
2 
8 
12 
355 197 
704 
1256 
a _ « 
‘■g 8 g 
"g 3 « 
Urine in disease may not only show a 
tendency to deposit matters of an insoluble 
character in the form of urinary deposits or 
calculi, but it may also contain in solution an 
excess or deficiency of any one or more of its 
normal constituents. There may likewise be 
present in solution matters altogether foreign 
to the healthy constitution of the fluid. The 
urine in disease may then, so far as its dis¬ 
solved matters are concerned, be considered 
in two points of view, viz. 1. Excess or defi¬ 
ciency of normal constituents ; 2. Presence 
of matters not existing in healthy urine. 
I shall proceed to notice the state of the 
urine in those forms of disease in which it 
has received attention, and shall quote from 
the work of Franz Simon, who not only 
laboured long and well on the subject, but 
collected much valuable information relating 
to it. Before doing this, however, I must 
notice the ingenious attempt made by Bec¬ 
querel to classify all diseased conditions of 
urine under four heads, viz. 1. Febrile urine ; 
2. Anaemic urine ; 3. Alkaline urine ; 4. Urine 
but slightly varying from the conditions of 
health. 
I will shortly notice the principal cha¬ 
racters of these four varieties. 
1. Febrile urine. — a. Febrile urine, strictly 
speaking.—The proportion of water passed 
in the twenty-four hours less than in health. 
Solid matters slightly diminished in propor¬ 
tion. Urea and inorganic salts deficient. 
Uric acid increased in proportion. Colour 
high. Specific gravity above the normal 
standard. Often turbid from lithates. Some¬ 
times contain albumen. 
This latter statement of Becquerel’s must 
be received with some reservation. Thus I 
have several times known a deposit produced 
in urine in adynamic forms of fever on the 
addition of nitric acid, which proved, on ex¬ 
amination, to be lithic acid and not albumen. 
The following are the conditions in which, 
according to Becquerel, the urine assumes 
the febrile character ; viz., in chronic and acute 
inflammations ; in diseases of the liver, heart, 
and lungs; in haemorrhages, and in organic 
degenerations of organs resulting from fever 
or long functional derangement. 
ß. Febrile urine, with debility. — The pro¬ 
portion of water diminished. Specific gravity 
less than in a. Solid matters also less in the 
twenty-four hours. Uric acid in normal 
proportion. All other constituents absolutely 
but not relatively diminished. This urine is 
then less concentrated than that of health. It 
is deeply coloured, often turbid from deposit 
of uric acid. It occurs in adynamic fevers. 
y. Febrile urine containing the natural pro¬ 
portion of water. — Urea and fixed salts dimi¬ 
nished in proportion. Uric acid and other 
organic matters normal. Specific gravity low. 
Colour deep. No sediment. 
2. Anæmic urine. — a. True anaemic urine.— 
Water in the twenty-four hours nearly normal. 
Solids discharged much less than in health. 
Urea, uric acid, and fixed salts diminished. 
Other organic matters decreased in slighter 
degree than the above. Specific gravity low. 
Colour light. No sediment. 
ß. — Concentrated anæmic urine.—Water in 
twenty-four hours diminished, although the 
solids are then relatively increased, still they 
are absolutely diminished. Urea, uric acid, 
and fixed salts especially diminished. Other 
organic matters less so. Urine of livid or 
greenish tint. 
3. Alkaline urine.—Distinguished by alkaline 
reaction on test paper. Odour ammoniacal : 
occurs in acute and chronic nephritis, diseases 
of the bladder with secretion of pus, and in 
certain cerebral diseases; occasionally in the 
“ morbus Brightii.” 
4. Urine nearly normal. — Nearly that of 
health. Occurs in mild disorders unaccom¬ 
panied by fever. 
With respect to this classification of Bec¬ 
querel, it may be observed that the heads of 
arrangement by no means embrace all the 
forms of diseased urine met with in practice, 
—an end, indeed, which will scarcely be com¬ 
passed by any attempts of the kind. There 
appears no advantage in making such clas¬ 
sifications; and indeed much evil must result 
from the necessary endeavour which will be 
made in such a table to place diseases under 
headings which either imperfectly or incor¬ 
rectly express their real character. The table, 
however, is of some value, as showing the 
general results obtained in fevers and in 
anaemia ; but further than this the student 
need not regard it. 
The following introductory remarks by Franz 
Simon are extremely valuable, and will well 
repay the reader for the trouble taken in their 
careful perusal. I transcribe them from Dr. 
Day’s translation for the Sydenham Society: — 
“ In inflammatory affections, and in those 
diseases which are accompanied by that form 
of fever which is termed sthenic or synochal, 
the urine differs greatly in its properties from 
normal urine. In speaking of the probable 
cause of the changed constitution of the blood 
in the phlogoses, I showed that it is not to be 
referred to the diseased organ, but to the re¬ 
action which manifests itself throughout the 
vascular system. If the change in the con¬ 
stitution of the blood bears an accurate and 
inseparable relation to the fever, there can be
	        
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