Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

The Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology, vol. 4: Pla [corr.: Ple] - Wri
Todd, Robert Bentley
and act with the greatest advantage. This 
arrangement I shall now proceed to describe. 
Suppose the section made at a point just 
in front of the anterior free border of the 
genioglossi {fig. 748.). Immediately beneath 
the papillae (which may be very well dis¬ 
played by this method), the condensed sub¬ 
mucous areolar tissue or cutis of the tongue is 
seen, of considerable thickness, being thickest 
on the upper surface, especially towards the 
middle (aa). Immediately beneath this, around 
the whole circumference of the tongue, is seen 
a very curious areolated or fenestrated ap¬ 
pearance, consisting of cross bars, branching 
and interlacing irregularly at various angles, 
leaving interspaces that are filled up by groups 
of discs (dd). The cross bars are at once seen 
to be small fasciculi of the vertical or trans¬ 
verse fibres, or both, according to the part 
looked at, and the groups of discs are seen to 
be transverse sections of the longitudinal 
fibres passing through the meshes formed by 
the vertical and transverse, which they more 
or less completely fill, and with whose shape 
they more or less exactly correspond {figs. 748. 
and 751.). The fasciculi of the longitudinal 
fibres are in most situations much larger than 
those of the vertical and transverse, among 
which they are contained ; indeed, the lon¬ 
gitudinal being confined to the surface, it 
would naturally be expected that they would 
preponderate there. The vertical fibres are 
most abundant in the vertical median plane 
and the horizontal in the horizontal median 
plane (/), the vertical not existing near the 
lateral surfaces, nor the transverse near the 
superior and inferior sui'face {figs. 749. a, a) ; 
and from this fact result almost all the pe¬ 
culiarities of arrangement of the fibres that we 
In the first place it results from this, that 
the vertical and horizontal fibres cross each 
other in the centre, which they entirely occupy, 
and therefore exclude the longitudinal ; ac¬ 
cordingly no discs are seen in the central 
part of the tongue. Secondly, that at a cer¬ 
tain line {fig. 748. g.) the vertical emerge 
from the transverse, and are continued up 
or down, to the superior or inferior surface, 
alone; and similarly at the lateral regions the 
transverse emerge from the vertical, and are 
continued on alone to the cutis at the 
sides ; hence the fibres near the middle of the 
upper and under surface, and at the borders 
of the tongue, do not interlace but pass to 
the surface with something of parallelism; 
and hence the fasciculi of longitudinal fibres 
here are arranged, not as in the mesh of a 
network, but in parallel rows at right angles 
to the surface ; an arrangement very charac¬ 
teristic of these situations. Thirdly, it would 
result from this absence of vertical fibres at 
the sides, and of the transverse above and 
below, that there would be four situations 
{b, b, b, b, fig. 749. a .) in the neutral ground 
between the upper and under surfaces and the 
borders respectively, where there would be no 
cross fibres of any sort, and where the lon¬ 
gitudinal fibres would exist alone, unsupported 
and unseparated. Moreover, the vertical fibres 
at the upper and under surface, and the trans- 
Fig. 749. 
: ■ - - 
z - -}-m-—; 
Plan of the intrinsic muscles of the tongue as seen in 
transverse section. 
a, a, a, a, Superior, inferior, right and left 
lateral regions ; b, b, b, b, right and left supra and 
sub-lateral regions. (Compare wither. 4.). 
verse at the sides, would be so dense and 
numerous that they would hardly admit of any 
longitudinal fibres in their interspaces. Now 
the support and separation of the longitudinal 
fasciculi, and the admission of a sufficient 
number of them at all the superficial parts of 
the tongue (especially the two surfaces and the 
two edges, which may be called the cardinal 
points of the tongue with regard to its move¬ 
ments), are the two things that are especially 
to be brought about. To achieve this double 
object, the vertical and horizontal fibres, as 
they approach their respective surfaces, spread 
out in a sort of fan-like manner ; the most 
lateral of the vertical fibres spreading out to¬ 
wards the sides {fig. 748. k, k), and the most 
superior and inferior of the transverse spread¬ 
ing up and down towards the surfaces {fig.748. 
i, i,fig. 749. b.). The two sets thus cross each 
other and fill the otherwise empty space with 
a network of considerable regularity and beauty, 
which is characteristic of these four situations, 
as the parallel fasciculi at right angles to the 
surface are characteristic of the four inter¬ 
mediate ones. For the sake of convenience 
I shall call the situations where the transverse 
and vertical fibres approach the surface in pa¬ 
rallel bundles, the superior, the inferior, and 
the right and left lateral regions {fig. 749. a,b. 
a, a, a, a) : those in which they decussate as 
they approach the surface, I shall call the 
right and left supra-lateral, and the right and 
left sub-lateral {fig. 749. B.b,b, b,b.). Fourthly, 
the mesial vertical and mesial horizontal plane 
are the situations where the vertical and hori¬ 
zontal fibres respectively would act with the 
greatest power on the form of the tongue, and 
where also they would admit of being the


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