Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

The Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology, vol. 4: Pla [corr.: Ple] - Wri
Todd, Robert Bentley
1126 TONGUE. 
the transverse at right angles.* Cruveilhier 
has erroneously described them as passing 
downwards and inwards: their divergence as 
they pass downwards is very conspicuous. 
The central area— the Ungual nucleus {noyau 
lingual) of Bauer, — is therefore constituted 
of two sets of fibres, a ventrical and trans¬ 
verse ; the transverse being entirely intrinsic, 
and the vertical in part intrinsic and in part 
derived from the genioglossus. 
A section made anterior to the free margin 
of this last-mentioned muscle, shows the cor¬ 
tical portion continued completely round the 
tongue, without the break on its inferior sur¬ 
face, occasioned, in the previous section, by 
the entrance of the genioglossi muscles; it 
is also of greater thickness in proportion to 
the central part, which is comparatively small, 
and the transverse fibres have a less marked 
upward curvature at their extremities. 
Thirdly, a section made near the base of the 
tongue shows the cortical portion nearly lost 
at the upper surface, greatly accumulated at 
the sides, but not of so compact anature as in 
more anterior situations; the obliquely ver¬ 
tical fibres tolerably abundant, but the trans¬ 
verse nearly lost, and the greater part of the 
inferior surface occupied by the expanded 
Transverse vertical sections, therefore, dis¬ 
play two sets of fibres, a vertical and a trans¬ 
verse, and shew their situation and quantity ; 
let us now see what additional light will be fur¬ 
nished by a longitudinal vertical section. It 
shews that the cortical portion consists of lon¬ 
gitudinal fibres., and thus supplies a third set. 
If the section be made in the middle line, or 
near it, the v/hole cut surface is occupied by 
the .vertical fibres .of the geniohyoglossus, at 
first directed backwards, but curving upwards 
so as to enter the tongue vertically, in which 
vertical direction they are continued up through 
its entire thickness, and are lost in the longi¬ 
tudinal fibres of the cortical portion ; if the 
section is made in the lateral portions, it shows 
the vertical striation occasioned by the in¬ 
trinsic vertical fibres, and the cortical portion, 
as in the other. Having ascertained the si¬ 
tuation and direction of the three sorts of 
fibres, we may, by making transverse sections 
at all points from the apex to the base, and 
longitudinal ones at various distances from the 
vertical median plane, and also by tracing the 
extrinsic longitudinal muscles into the intrinsic, 
and seeing what part of the one the other fur¬ 
nishes, get an exact interpretation of them. 
We should then find the tongue to consist of 
the following muscles. 
a. A transverse lingualf, altogether intrinsic, 
* Theile denies the existence of the intrinsic 
vertical fibres ; he says that those seen in longi¬ 
tudinal section are the ascending fibres of the genio¬ 
glossus, and those seen besides them in trans¬ 
verse sections are the most oblique of the transverse ; 
— a misconception of which the microscopical ex¬ 
amination of sections at once shows the fallacy. 
f The adoption of the word lingual for all the 
intrinsic ^muscles of the tongue, from the French 
writers on this subject, has no objection against it, 
and has the advantage of brevity. 
inserted on each side into the submucous 
fibrous tissue or cutis, continued from apex to 
base, more abundant anteriorly, where it is 
horizontal, becoming more curved upwards as 
we proceed backwards, and being lost at the 
1$. A vertical lingual, in part intrinsic ; in part 
the lingual portion of an extrinsic muscle, 
the genioglossus, existing from apex to base, 
in all parts vertical to the surface, and there¬ 
fore, from the curved direction of the tongue, 
arranged in a more or less radiating or fan¬ 
like manner. 
7. A superior lingual, longitudinal, in¬ 
trinsic, thin behind, thicker in the middle, 
and thinner again at the apex, arising from 
the hyoglossal membrane and cutis at the 
base jof the tongue in a gradual way, and 
having a similar cutaneous insertion on the 
upper surface of the tip and neighbouring 
5. A lateral Ungual, longitudinal, altogether 
extrinsic in its origin ; derived from two prin¬ 
cipal sources ; one, its upper and most super¬ 
ficial portion from the fibres of the stylo¬ 
glossus, which pass forward on the side of the 
tongue after the insertion of that muscle into 
it, the other from the anterior fibres of the 
hyoglossus which have a similar distribution : 
to this may be added a slender fasciculus of 
fibres interposed between the styloglossus and 
hyoglossus, which many modern anatomists * 
have described as the lingual muscle. The 
muscle thus formed constitutes the accumula¬ 
tion of longitudiual fibres before referred to 
as seen at the sides of a transverse vertical 
section of the base ; passing forwards they 
become fused together and spread out so as 
to constitute a thin layer, merging above by 
converging towards the medial plane of the 
dorsum, in the superior lingual, below in that 
next to be described, and forming with them 
a sheath of longitudinal fibres, investing the 
whole surface of the tongue. 
e. An inferior lingual, a stout fasciculus of 
longitudinal muscular fibres entirely intrinsic, 
arising at the base of the tongue between 
the hyoglossus and genioglossus, and passing 
forwards between these two muscles to be 
inserted gradually into the cutis of the tongue 
on the inferior surface near the apex. This 
is the true lingual muscle of Douglas and Al- 
binus, and of anatomists of the present day. 
I am doubtful whether or not the most an¬ 
terior fibres of the genioglossus bend for¬ 
wards so much as to become longitudinal, but 
I think not (though Cruveilhier sajs they do): 
if they do, the longitudinal sheath in front of 
the free margin of the genioglossus would 
consist of four sets, behind it of three. 
Since the longitudinal fibres invest the 
whole of the free surface as a sheath ; since 
they are, most of them, not directly, but 
obliquely, longitudinal ; and since many of the 
central spread out to the sides, while the 
lateral converge to the centre, the division of 
the longitudinal linguals into superior, lateral, 
* Bichat, Traité d’Anatomie, t. ii. p. 43.


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