Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

The Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology, vol. 3: Ins-Pla
Todd, Robert Bentley
lower and external part of this ganglion a 
small nerve arises, (ramus auricularis nervi 
vagi,) which is seen joined by another small 
blanch from the lower part of the ganglion 
petrosum of the glosso-pharyngeal.* The ramus 
auricularis proceeds outwards and a little back¬ 
wards anterior to the jugular vein, and lies in a 
groove in that portion of the petrous portion of 
the temporal bone which assists in forming the 
fossa jugularis, perforates the osseous partition 
between the fossa jugularis and the aqueduct 
of Fallopius, and enters the internal side of the 
latter about one or two lines above its lower 
termination in the stylo-mastoid foramen. It 
now divides itself into two branches, a small 
ascending twig which joins the portio dura 
nerve, and a larger portion which enters a canal 
on the external side of the aqueduct of Fallo¬ 
pius, proceeding outwards and a little back¬ 
wards through that portion of the spongy por¬ 
tion of the temporal bone which forms the lower 
wall of the external meatus. The larger branch 
subdivides into two other branches as it lies in 
this canal. One of these emerges upon the 
external surface of the cranium through a small 
opening between the mastoid process and the 
posterior margin of the meatus auditorius, and 
divides into two or three twigs, which pass 
through openings in the cartilage of the pavilion 
of the external ear, and are ultimately distri¬ 
buted upon the tegumentary covering of the 
internal surface of the concha and meatus audi¬ 
torius externus. The other branch of the nerve 
passes through the mastoid process and joins 
itself to the auricular branch of the portio dura, 
and along with it is distributed upon the pos¬ 
terior surface of the pavilion of the external 
ear.f The trunk of the spinal accessory is 
closely connected to the posterior surface of the 
superior ganglion of the vagus by cellular tissue, 
and immediately below the lower end of the 
ganglion it throws a considerable branch into 
the vagus. The exact place and manner in 
which these auxiliary fibres from the accessory 
join the vagus differ in different individuals, 
and sometimes in the two sides of the same 
individual, but most generally the spinal acces¬ 
sory divides itself at the lower part of the fora¬ 
men lacerum into two branches, the internal 
and external branches of the spinal accessory. 
The internal branch runs immediately into the 
Capitis, plate iv.) represents an anastomosis be¬ 
tween the accessory and ganglion jngulare. Krause 
(Hanbuch der Menschlichen Anatomie. S. 1066, 
1843, and Hein (Midler’s Archives for 1844. Heft 
iv. p. 337) describe the superior filaments of the 
root of the accessory as connecting themselves to 
the lower filaments of the vagus, and that a few of 
the filaments of the accessory may enter the ganglion 
jngulare of the vagus. BischofF (Nervi Accessorii 
Willisii Anatomia et Physiologia, 1832) neither 
delineates nor describes any communicating fila¬ 
ments passing between the spinal accessory and 
the ganglion jngulare of the vagus. 
* In Valentin’s description (opus cit. p. 483) of 
this auricular branch, the strengthening twig is said 
to come from the hypoglossal nerve, (aus dem 
zungenfieischnerven, ) but this must either be some 
error of the press or some lapsus scribendi. 
t Vide Arnold’s leones Nervorum Capitis, tabul. 
iii. et v. 
anterior and outer part of the vagus, and while 
one portion of its fibres goes to form a part of 
the superior pharyngeal branch of the vagus, 
the other portion joins itself to the trunk of the 
vagus, and accompanies it down the neck. 
Sometimes the fibres of the internal branch of 
the accessory are arranged in two bundles, and 
in such cases the one generally joins itself to 
the vagus a little below the other. The exter¬ 
nal branch of the accessory proceeds downwards 
and outwards, perforates the upper part of the 
sterno-cleido-mastoid muscle, and ultimately 
terminates in the trapezius muscle. 
The superior ganglion of the vagus was known 
to Ehrenritter.* It appears also to have been 
well known to Wutzer, for it is both mentioned 
and figured by him in his monograph De Cor¬ 
poris Humani Gangliorum Fab. et Usu, 1818. 
Wutzer has in fig. vii. certainly represented it 
as being placed somewhat inferior to the gan¬ 
glion petrosum of the glosso-pharyngeal, instead 
of being rather above it : yet as he terms it 
ganglion prim urn n. v. and figures the ganglion 
secundum in its proper position, there can be 
no doubt that he was well aware of its exist¬ 
ence. It has been supposed by some that 
Lobsteinf had also pointed out the existence of 
this ganglion, while others maintain that his 
description is not sufficiently explicit to enable 
us to decide whether it refers to the upper or 
lower ganglion of the vagus. It appears, how¬ 
ever, much more probable that it is the superior 
ganglion, for after mentioning that the vagus 
presents a reddish appearance, similar to a 
ganglion, (rubella parum quasi ganglion men- 
tiretur,) he describes the superior pharyngeal 
branch of this nerve as arising below it. MiillerJ 
has attempted to shew that Comparetti was the 
first anatomist who described this ganglion, 
and that he wTas even acquainted with the ramus 
auricularis of the vagus; but Arnold,§ on the 
other hand, maintains, and we think justly, that 
the description of Comparetti applies equally 
well, if not better, to the ganglion petrosum of 
the glosso-pharyngeal. Desmoulins and Ma- 
gendie|| observed the superior ganglion of the 
vagus in the carnivorous Mammalia and in the 
Ruminantia, and also a branch passing from it 
to join the portio dura, but denied that this 
ramus auricularis exists in man. Cuvier^ had 
also previous to this pointed out the ramus 
auricularis in the calf. It was not, however, 
until Arnold’s description of this ganglion had 
been made public, that it became generally 
known to anatomists, and its true nature and its 
anatomical relations exactly ascertained.** Ar- 
* Salzburg, Med. Chir. Zeitung, 1790. B. 4. S. 
319, as quoted by Bendz. 
t Dissertatio de Nervo Spinali ad Par Vaguin Ae- 
cessario. Ludwig Scrip. Nerv. Min. Select, tom. 
ii. p. 235. 
t Archiv, für Anat. Phys, &c. Heft ii. s. 275, 
§ Bemerkungen über den Bau des Hirns und 
Rückenmarks, &c. S. 178. Zurich, 1838. 
|| Anatomie des Systèmes Nerveux des Animaux 
à Vertèbres. Deuxième partie, p. 435 & 463, 1825. 
H Idem opus, p. 435. 
** Der Kopftheil der vegetativen Nerven Sys¬ 
tèmes. Heidelberg und Leipsic, 1831. 
3 L 2


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