Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Titel:
The Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology, vol. 3: Ins-Pla
Person:
Todd, Robert Bentley
PURL:
https://digitalesammlungen.uni-weimar.de/viewer/image/lit29464/956/
872 
PACHYDERM ATA. 
sac issuing from the posterior aspect of the car¬ 
diac extremity of the stomach and projecting 
towards the right side. The construction of the 
interior of this stomach is still more extraordinary 
than its external appearance, for it is so divided 
by septa, that food coming into this viscus through 
the oesophagus may pass by different channels, 
either into the central portion, which seems pro¬ 
perly entitled to the name of stomach, or into 
either of the great diverticula appended to it. 
The inferior walls of the central stomach have 
nine or ten cavities in them, something like 
those of the Camel and Dromedary. The lining 
membrane both of the stomach and diverticula 
is granular and wrinkled except near the py¬ 
lorus, where the parietes become smooth and 
folded into numerous plicæ somewhat resem¬ 
bling those of the third stomach of a ruminant, 
although there is no probability that rumination 
occurs in the animal under consideration. 
In the hog tribe the proportionate dimensions 
of the alimentary canal are very great when 
compared with the size of the animal’s body, 
the large and small intestines of the Hog or 
wild Boar measuring together from sixty to 
sixty-five feet in length, the large intestines 
alone being in the wild Boar thirteen and in the 
domestic Hog fifteen feet long. The stomach 
is capacious, the entrance of the oesophagus 
being situated nearly in the centre of its lesser 
curvature, so that the cardiac cul de sac is 
exceedingly large, and is moreover prolonged 
into a kind of cowl-shaped appendage, which 
gives it a very peculiar aspect. On opening 
the stomach the epithelium of the oesophagus 
is found to be prolonged for some distance into 
its interior, where it covers a square space of 
considerable extent, the borders of which are 
well defined. At the entrance to the pylorus 
there is a large nipple-shaped projection up¬ 
wards of an inch in length in the full-grown 
animal ; and moreover, however much the 
stomach may be distended, there always re¬ 
mains a deep fold crossing it at its upper part, 
between the oesophagus and the pylorus, and 
another equally extensive bounding the com¬ 
mencement of the great cardiac cul de sac, 
these folds evidently indicating a relationship 
with the more complex stomachs met with in 
ruminating animals, especially as the lining 
membrane only assumes a villous aspect in the 
pyloric region of the viscus. 
The liver consists of four lobes, and there is 
a distinct gall-bladder, either lodged in a deep 
fissure, or imbedded in the substance of the 
middle lobe. The spleen is long, flat, and 
somewhat of a prismatic shape, and the pan¬ 
creas consists of three portions, which unite 
near the pylorus. 
The Hyrax Capensis has a stomach which to 
a certain extent reminds the anatomist of the 
complex condition of that viscus met with in 
many animals nearly related to the Pachyder- 
mata. The cardiac extremity is large, and 
forms a capacious cavity, which is divided by a 
deep constriction from a second compartment 
of smaller dimensions, which opens into the 
pyloric portion of the organ. The whole viscus 
is moreover so bent upon itself owing to the 
smallness of the lesser curvature, that the py¬ 
loric and cardiac extremities are almost in con¬ 
tact with each other. The cæcum is likewise 
proportionably of enormous size, being larger 
than the stomach itself, and from this a spirally 
folded intestine of no very great calibre runs to 
a kind of second cæcum of large capacity, 
which has its commencement prolonged up¬ 
wards by means of two conical appendages like 
horns, whence it has been named by Pallas 
intestinum bicorne, and this last, after becoming 
considerably diminished in size, terminates in 
the rectum. 
Salivary glands.—The salivary organs are 
very large. In the Hog there are two sublingual 
glands ; one, which is very long and narrow, 
accompanies the duct of the maxillary gland, 
and is composed of small lobes of a pale reddish 
^colour ; the orifice of its excretory duct is near 
that of the maxillary. The second sublingual 
gland is placed in front of the former, and is 
of a square form ; it discharges its secretion 
through eight or ten short ducts, which pierce 
the mucous membrane of the mouth. The 
parotid is large, its duct opening opposite the 
third molar tooth ; and in addition to these 
there are the molar glands, which form two 
elongated masses, situated along the alveoli of 
the superior and inferior molar teeth, and 
extending forward as far as the canines ; these 
pour their secretion into the mouth through 
numerous little orifices. 
Os hyoides.—The os hyoides in the Elephant 
has its body or central portion, which resembles 
a flattened lamina, slightly arched from below 
upwards, consolidated with the posterior cornua, 
which divide into two branches as they curve 
gently backwards and inwards. The anterior 
cornua articulate with the styloid process of the 
temporal. In other Pachyderms the general 
disposition of the hyoid pieces is very similar 
to the above, but in the Rhinoceros their ar¬ 
rangement approximates what is met with in 
horned ruminants, the anterior cornua being 
articulated to the styloid by an intervening 
osseous piece. 
The laryngeal apparatus exhibits nothing 
extraordinary in its arrangement. 
Circulatory and respiratory systems.—The 
organs of circulation and respiration likewise, 
in their general arrangement, differ from those 
of other Mammalia in no important particular. 
We may, however, notice one or two deviations 
from the usual type in the origins of the chief 
venous and arterial trunks. 
In the Hyrax the arch of the aorta gives oft’ 
the arteria innominata, which divides into the 
right subclavian and the two common carotids, 
and then a second single trunk, which is the 
left subclavian. 
The Elephant in several points of its economy 
exhibits remarkable affinities with the Roden- 
tia, in proof of which the correspondence of 
the structure of its heart with that of some of 
the Rodents is very striking. Thus the right 
auricle receives three venae cavæ, a right and a 
left superior and an inferior, which latter pre¬ 
sents the usual arrangement. Moreover, the 
Eustachian valve, which is placed between
        

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