Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

The Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology, vol. 3: Ins-Pla
Todd, Robert Bentley
he direction of the single-fanged teeth of their 
patients by the application of wires. 
Digestive System.—The digestive apparatus 
is enormously developed in all the animals be¬ 
longing to this order, being in this respect not 
only adapted to the quantity of materials con¬ 
sumed for the support of their unwieldy bodies, 
but likewise in accordance with the strictly 
vegetable nature of the aliment upon which 
they feed, which, compared with animal sub¬ 
stances, is necessarily bulky and innutntious. 
We select a few examples. 
The stomach of the Elephant is simple, but 
in shape it is much more elongated than in the 
human subject. Its cardiac- extremity is pro¬ 
longed into a pouch of considerable size, the 
lining membrane of which is gathered into 
thirteen or fourteen large valvular folds, which, 
from their great size, seem to form so many 
broad valves. The muscular tunic of this 
pouch and around the cardia is remarkably 
thick, and its contents such as to indicate some 
analogy between this portion of the stomach 
and the abomasus or fourth stomach of rumina¬ 
ting quadrupeds. 
The small intestines are very voluminous, 
and the colon and cæcum of enormous dimen¬ 
sions, presenting longitudinal tendinous bands 
and wide pouches as in the human subject. 
The following table will serve to shew the pro¬ 
digious extent of the intestinal canal of an 
Elephant seventeen years of age, and only 
seven feet and a half in height. 
ft. in. 
Length of the small intestines from 
the pylorus to the cæcum.....38 0 
Circumference of ditto......... 2 0 
Length of cæcum............. 1 6 
Circumference of cæcum........ 5 0 
Circumference of colon......... 6 0 
Length of colon and rectum to¬ 
gether ..................... 20 0 
Total length of intestinal canal, ex¬ 
clusive of the cæcum........ 58 6 
The liver requires no special notice, but the 
arrangement of the biliary ducts of the Ele¬ 
phant is very remarkable ; and various opinions 
are recorded by the older anatomists as to 
whether the Elephant did or did not possess a 
gall-bladder, most of them denying its existence, 
while others mistook enlargements of the biliary 
canals for a true vesiculum fiellis. 
The gall-bladder of the Elephant (fig. 480) 
is, in fact, situated between the coats of the 
duodenum itself, (b, c, e, p,) quite at the ter¬ 
mination of the biliary duct which comes im¬ 
mediately from the liver. It consists of a great 
oval pouch divided by transverse valves or septa 
into four compartments (n, o). The fundus 
and walls of this pouch are studded with glan¬ 
dular granules ; the bile enters it at one ex¬ 
tremity from the hepatic duct, (f\ g,) and at 
the opposite end passes into the interior of the 
intestine (a, d, e, c) through a mamillary 
projection, situated upwards of two feet from 
the pylorus, through the orifice of which the 
point of a probe (q, r) is represented as pro¬ 
truding. The arrangement of the pancreatic 
conduits is likewise remarkable. The pancreas 
Fig. 480 
consists of a loose a*rraugement of glandular 
masses not very closely connected with each 
other, from which separate ducts are given off, 
which terminate in a common canal. This 
latter, however, soon divides into two branches, 
one of which pours the secretion which it con¬ 
veys into the upper compartment of the biliary 
pouch, where it is mixed up with the bile therein 
contained preparatory to its introduction into 
the intestine, while the other branch of the pan¬ 
creatic duct opens into the duodenum itself, 
about two inches lower down, so that at the 
orifice bile mixed with the pancreatic secretion 
enters the duodenum, while from the lower 
aperture the fluid received is pure pancreatic 
The spleen of Pachydermatous animals differs 
in no noticeable respect from that of other 
quadrupeds. In the Elephant it measures 
four feet in length, yet even this is thought 
small when compared with the gigantic size of 
the animal. 
The stomach of the Hippopotamus, or, at all 
events, of a fœtal Hippopotamus dissected by 
Daubenton, presents a very remarkable con¬ 
formation. Externally it appeared to be com¬ 
posed of three parts ; the principal portion, ex¬ 
tending from the cardiac extremity to the py¬ 
lorus, was much elongated, resembling more a 
portion of intestine than an ordinary stomachal 
receptacle. Besides this central part, extending 
from the oesophagus to the pyloric valve, were 
two long appendages like two cæcums, one 
arising on the right side of the oesophagus and 
running along the exterior of the stomach 
throughout almost its entire length, and then 
folding backwards, the other and shorter cul de


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