Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Dictionary of philosophy and psychology including many of the principal conceptions of ethics, logics, aesthetics ... and giving a terminology in English, French, German and Italian, vol. 2 [lead-zwing]
Baldwin, James Mark
Giddings (Princ. of Sociol.), instead of the 
term matriarchal. (f.h.g.) 
Meyer’s Experiment : Ger. Meyer scher 
Versuch ; Fr. expérience de Meyer ; Ital. espe- 
rienza del Meyer. An experiment in visual 
contrast. Lay on a coloured field a small 
piece of grey paper, and cover the whole with 
white tissue-paper. The colour complemen¬ 
tary to the field spreads over the grey. The 
vividness of the effect is due not to the di¬ 
minution of saturation but to the blurring 
of the outline of the grey. Cf. Contrast 
(visual, simultaneous). 
Literature : H. Meyer, Pogg. Ann. 
(1855), xiv. 170 ; Helmholtz, Physiol. Optik 
(2nd ed.), 547 ; Ebbinghaus, Psychologie, 
221; Saneobd, Course in Exper. Psychol., 
expt. 152 c. (E.B.T.) 
Meynert, Theodor. (1833-92.) Edu¬ 
cated at Yienna. Privatdocent in brain 
anatomy, 1865; prosector of the Yienna 
Insane Asylum, 1866 ; director of the Psy¬ 
chiatric Clinic, and assistant professor of 
psychiatry in the University, 1870 ; professor 
of neurology, 1873; privy councillor, 1885. 
President of the Psychiatric Association, vice- 
president of the Yienna Medical Society, and 
member of the Imperial Academy of Sciences. 
Michelet, Karl Ludwig. (1801-93.) 
Studied law and, later, philosophy at Berlin ; 
assistant professor of philosophy there, 
1829. He is sometimes classed as one of 
the ‘ older ’ Hegelians, one of the right wing. 
Microcéphalie [Gr. puKpôs, small, + KeÿàXi], 
head] : Ger. mikrocephal ; Fr. microcéphale ; 
Ital. microcefalo. Having an abnormally 
small head, or one below a certain standard ; in 
the adult less than 431 mm. or 17 inches in 
circumference, or 1,35° c.c. capacity of the 
The deficiency mainly affects the brain, and 
is proportionally most marked in the hemi¬ 
spheres. Microcéphalie persons are almost 
always of defective intelligence, and are fre¬ 
quently idiots of extreme types. Only a 
small percentage of idiots, however, are 
microcéphalie. The causes of this condition 
are obscure ; the frequency with which the 
sutures of microcéphalie skulls are found 
closed is significant. Extreme cases of mi¬ 
crocephaly have attracted attention from 
ancient times to the present. Cf. Idiocy, (j. j.) 
Literature : "W. W. Ireland, Idiocy (with 
literature); Yogt, Les Microcéphales ou 
Hommes-singes (1867); Giacomini, Cervelli 
dei Microcefali (1890). (j.j.-e.m.) 
Microcosm : see Mackocosm. 
Micro-organism [Gr. piKpôs, small,+ 00- 
yavov, an instrument] : Ger. Mikroorganismus ; 
Fr. micro-organisme ; Ital. microrganismo. 
An organism too small to be visible to the 
naked eye. Chiefly applied to the lowest 
fungi, but occasionally to some of the Protozoa. 
Cf. Unicellular Organisms. (c.s.m.) 
Mid- [AS. midde]. The median. See 
Mean and Median. 
Used, in various compounds, in the termino¬ 
logy introduced by F. Galton (.Natural 
Inheritance) for the mathematical treatment 
of problems of heredity. Mid-stature : ‘ the 
median [stature] of the general population ’ 
(ibid. 92). Mid-parent: ‘an ideal [supposed^ 
person of composite sex whose stature [e.g. 
is halfway between the stature of the father 
and the transmuted stature of the mother ’ 
(ibid. 87 ; transmuted meaning increased by 
the amount requisite to make female compar¬ 
able with male stature, ibid. 56). Mid-error : 
probable error (ibid. 58) ; cf. Errors of 
Observation. (j.m.b.) 
Mid-parent : see Mid-. 
Middle Term (and Middle) [trans. of 
terminus médius, medium, used by Boethius 
to translate Aristotle’s 6 péaos opos, to péaroii] : 
Ger. Mittelbegriff; Fr. terme moyen', Ital. 
mezzo termine, termine medio. The adjec¬ 
tive pea-os is applied in Greek to a third object 
additional to two others, when the idea of 
intervening can hardly be detected. It is, 
therefore, perhaps needless to seek further for 
Aristotle’s intention in calling that term, by 
the consideration of which two others are 
illatively brought into one proposition as its 
subject and predicate, the middle term, or 
middle. It is the most important factor of 
Aristotle’s theory of reasoning. 
The same word means little more than 
third in the phrase ‘principle of excluded 
middle,’ which is, indeed, often called princi- 
pium exclusi tertii. See Laws of Thought. 
On the other hand, something which par¬ 
takes of each of two disparate natures, and 
renders them capable of influencing one an¬ 
other, is called a tertium quid (Aristotle’s 17 
Tpirri ovala). (C.S.P., C.D.F.) 
Migraine or Megrim [Gr. rjpiKpavla, half¬ 
headed] : Ger. Migräne ; Fr. migraine ; Ital. 
emicrania. A severe headache, almost invari¬ 
ably confined to one side of the head (hence 
also termed hemicrania), and accompanied 
by the symptoms described below. The ten¬ 
dency to migraine, which is popularly known 
as ‘ sick-headache,’ is often inherited. 
It is most apt to appear in youth, and ordi- 


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