Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Dictionary of philosophy and psychology including many of the principal conceptions of ethics, logics, aesthetics ... and giving a terminology in English, French, German and Italian, vol. 2 [lead-zwing]
Baldwin, James Mark
Gesammtpersönlichkeit (Wundt); Fr. conscience 
sociale, moi tribal ; Ital. lo tribole (or soziale). 
The psychological factors involved in the 
organization of a social group (tribe), when 
conceived, after analogy with the individual’s 
mental organization, in the form of a personal 
The conception is often vague, and stands 
upon much the same plane as that of General 
(or Social) Will (q. v.). (j.m.b., e.h.g.) 
Tribe [Lat. tribus, a third part] : Ger. 
Stamm\ Fr. tribu; Ital. tribu, (i) One of 
the three divisions of the Roman people recog¬ 
nized at the beginning of their recorded 
(2) An organized group or band of persons, 
usually compound, the component groups 
being allied hordes or related clans, and all 
speaking a common language or dialect. 
A tribe is essentially a military organization, 
and usually has a military council and a chief. 
It should not be confounded with a Clan 
(q. v.), which is essentially a juridical organiza¬ 
The word tribe has equivalents in all 
languages except those of the lowest hordes, 
and tribes have been loosely described in all 
ancient and mediaeval literatures ; but the 
scientific description and definition (2) were 
first made by Lewis H. Morgan, The League 
of the Iroquois (1849), Systems of Consan- 
quinity and Affinity (1871), and Ancient 
Society (1877). ‘ (e.h.g.) 
Tribunal (legal) : see Court. 
Trichotomy (in theology) [Gr. rplxa, in 
three, + rapeiv, to divide] : Ger. Dreitheilung ; 
Fr. trichotomie ; Ital. tricotomia. The three¬ 
fold distinction of the nature of man into 
body (soma), soul (psyche)> and spirit (pneu- 
This view has its germ in the New Testa¬ 
ment, in such passages as 1 Thess. v. 23. It 
was advocated by Origen and opposed by 
Augustine and Tertullian, who held the dicho¬ 
tomic view. The distinction has survived to 
the present day, the trichotomie doctrine find¬ 
ing its principal exponents among German 
theologians, while its chief opponents are 
found among English divines. 
Literature'. Delitzsch and Peck, Bib. 
Psychol.; J. B. Heard, The Tripartite Na¬ 
ture of Man (1870); the literature of Psy¬ 
chology (biblical). (a.t.o.) 
Trilemma [Gr. rpeis, three, + hyppa, some¬ 
thing taken]: Ger. Trilemma’, Fr. trilemme; 
Ital. trilemma. A Syllogism (q. v.) with 
three conditional propositions, the major pre¬ 
mises of which are disjunctively affirmed in 
the minor {Cent. Diet.). Cf. Dilemma, (c.s.p.) 
Trinitarianism [Lat. trinitas, from tri- 
nus, threefold]: Ger. Dreieinigkeitslehre’, 
Fr. trinitarisme ; Ital. trinitarianismo. That 
doctrine of the divine nature which represents 
the Godhead as combining tripersonality wTith 
unity of individual substance and being. 
The Trinitarian conception, which received 
its first authoritative statement in the Atha- 
nasian Creed, has its germ in the New Testa¬ 
ment, which ascribes divine functions to 
Father, Son, and Spirit. The necessity arose 
of reconciling this plurality with the essential 
unity of the Godhead so as to avoid poly¬ 
theism. The fierce controversy between 
Aiians and Trinitarians ended in the triumph 
of the latter and the adoption of the Trinity 
as the central dogma of the Christian faith, a 
position which it has historically maintained. 
Literature : Liderer, Christi. Dogmatik 
(1849); Bauer, Die christl. Lehre v. d. 
Dreieinigkeit ; Shedd, Defence of Nicene 
Creed; Hodge, Hist, of Christ. Doctrine; 
0. Osterzee, Christ. Dogmatics (1841-3); 
Dorner, Syst. of Christ. Belief. (a.t.o.) 
Trinity : Ger. Dreieinigkeit ; Fr. Trinité ; 
Ital. Trinità. The Deity as represented in 
Nicene theology, including three personalities, 
Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, in one essen¬ 
tially unitary substance. The doctrine is 
often called that of ‘ tripersonality.’ 
For discussion and literature see Trini¬ 
tarianism, Arianism, and Athanasian 
Creed. (a.t.o.) 
Tripersonality : see Trinity. 
Tritheism (in theology) [Gr. rpeis, three, 
+ Qeos, God] : Ger. Tritheismus ; Fr. trithé- 
isme ; Ital. treteismo. A conception of the 
Trinity (q. v.), which virtually represented 
the Father, Son, and Spirit as three distinct 
individuals, predicating distinction of sub¬ 
stance as well as of personal manifestation. 
This view arose as a polytheistic reaction 
against extreme monotheistic tendencies. It 
originated in Alexandria in the 6th century, 
and was championed by Philoponeius, Conon 
of Tarsus, Eugenius of Seleucia, and others. 
Later the party appeared in Constantinople, 
where a disputation was held between its 
representatives and the Patriarch John. The 
tendency has practically disappeared from 
later Christian thought. 
Literature : see Trinitarianism. (a.t.o.) 
Triune God [Lat. très, three, + unus, one : 
three in one] : Ger. der dreieinige Gott ; Er. 
le Dieu en trois personnes; Ital. Dio uno 


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