Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Dictionary of philosophy and psychology including many of the principal conceptions of ethics, logics, aesthetics ... and giving a terminology in English, French, German and Italian, vol. 2 [lead-zwing]
Baldwin, James Mark
the predicate becomes the contradictory of 
the original predicate, and (2) in which the 
copula is changed from positive to negative 
or the reverse, and also from symmetrical to 
unsymmetrical or the reverse. (c.l.f.) 
Transformation (of energy) : see Conser¬ 
vation oe Energy, and Energy. 
Transformism(or theory of Transforma¬ 
tion) [Lat. trans +forma, shape] : Ger. Trans¬ 
formationstheorie; Fr. théorie de la transfor¬ 
mation, transformisme ; Ital. teoria del tras- 
formismo. The theory of biological Descent 
(q. v.), viewed as involving the transformation 
of earlier into later forms. Cf. Evolution, 
and Natural Selection (also for litera¬ 
ture). (J.M.B.) 
Transgression [Lat. transgressio, from 
transgredi, to pass over] : Ger. Verbrechen ; 
Fr. transgression ; Ital. trasgressione. In 
theology, transgression is identical with active 
sin, and consists in violating, disregarding, 
or ignoring the authoritative divine law as 
expressed in conscience or the written word. 
See Sin (also for literature). (a.t.o.) 
Transient [Lat. trans + ire, to go] : Ger. 
transgredient ; Fr. (2) transitif; Ital. (2) 
transeunte. (1) Transient, in its earlier use, is 
the equivalent of the post-Kantian term Tran¬ 
scendent (q. v.), as opposed to immanent. 
(2) As applied to activity or causes, see 
reference under Transeunt. 
Aristotle distinguished upâmiv (doing) from 
TTouiv (making), the former denoting an activity 
expended upon itself, the latter upon bringing 
into effect some modification of an external 
existence. Conduct fell into the former sphere, 
art into the latter. The scholastics regularly 
distinguished between causa or actio transiens 
and causa or actio immanens. Thus St. 
Thomas Aquinas says actio is twofold ; trans¬ 
iens, which goes forth into external material 
(to heat, to dry), and that which remains in 
the agent, as thinking, feeling, willing. See 
Eucken, Grundbegriffe der Gegenwart, 292 
and note. (j.d.) 
Transilient (variation and evolution) : 
see Natural Selection, passim, and cf. 
Mutation, and Variation (in biology). 
Translation [Lat. trans + latum, part, of 
ferre, to bear, carry] : Ger. Uebersetzung ; Fr. 
traduction (transposition) ; Ital. traduzione. 
(1) In the literal sense, the rendering of one 
language into another. 
(2) The statement of one subject in terms 
of another; the transference of a given line 
of argument from one sphere to another ; the 
use of one set of facts to describe another 
set, e. g. an essay in physics or physiology 
may be experimentally ‘ translated ’ into 
aesthetics or ethics, a statement of biological 
into a statement of economic fact. 
‘ “ Mrs. Carnac ” is the subject of one of the 
best and most highly prized of the mezzotints 
made under Sir Joshua’s eye; it is interesting 
to learn that the pendant of this picture, 
Gainsborough’s miraculous “ Mrs. Robinson,” 
has just been translated in the same medium 
by one of the most accomplished of the modern 
revivers of the art, Mr. Gerald Robinson, 
president of the Society of Mezzotint En¬ 
gravers’ (The Times, London, June 23, 1900). 
‘Lord Rosebery, as we have said, displays 
in a marked degree what may be called a 
theoretical knowledge of Imperial conditions. 
If he feels within himself the capacity and 
the energy to translate the knowledge into 
a practical programme, the way is plain before 
him’ (Times, London, Nov. 19, 1900). Cf. 
Signieics. (v.w.) 
Transmigration of Souls : see Metem¬ 
Transmission [Lat. trans + mittere, to 
send] : Ger. (1) Ueberlieferung, (2) Fort¬ 
pflanzung; Fr. transmission; Ital. trasmis- 
sione (see also the equivalents for Heredity). 
(1) Social : the handing down from one gene¬ 
ration to another of the material of Tradition 
(q. v., in biology and sociology). 
(2) Biological: ( a) physical Heredity (q.v.), 
i. e. the inheritance of specific, or definite, 
characters; (b) the passage from parent to 
child by physical reproduction of the effects, 
not themselves specific or definite, of those 
conditions of life which modify the germ-cells 
of one or both parents, e.g. the effects of alco¬ 
holic poisoning upon subsequent generations. 
For the distinction between (a) and (b) 
under definition (2), see Heredity. It 
is highly important in connection with the 
theory of Lamarckian inheritance. Only the 
form of transmission (a) is true heredity. 
In contrast with the transmission of general 
effects it has been called ‘ definite ’ transmis¬ 
sion (see Ewart, Pres. Address, Nature, Sept. 
12, 1901). The other case (b)—the appear¬ 
ance in the offspring of effects due to the 
influence of the parents’ conditions of life— 
may well be called ‘ indefinite ’ transmission. 
The former is the transmission of characters, 
the latter the transmission of conditions or 
The phenomena of social transmission have 
long been recognized in the historical sciences. 
The attempt in recent years to found socio- 


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