Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Dictionary of philosophy and psychology including many of the principal conceptions of ethics, logics, aesthetics ... and giving a terminology in English, French, German and Italian, vol. 2 [lead-zwing]
Baldwin, James Mark
mandatory and what is merely advisory in 
the divine law. With reference to the latter, 
man is free, and may lay up a store of merit 
which under given circumstances may be 
applied to the benefit of others. The doctrine 
involves a point of radical difference between 
the Romish and the Reformed Churches, the 
latter denying the validity of the distinction 
on which the doctrine of supererogation 
rests. (a.t.o.) 
Superhuman. [Lat. super + humanus, hu¬ 
man] : Ger. übermenschlich ; Fr. surhumain ; 
Ital. soprumano. That which transcends 
human power or agency. Ordinarily applied 
to agency or powei* analogous to that of man 
and not to the forces or agents of nature. 
Superhuman is to be distinguished from 
supernatural as belonging possibly to the 
realm of the natural. (a.t.o.) 
Supernatural [Lat. super + natura, na¬ 
ture] : Ger. übernatürlich; Fr. surnaturel; 
Ital. soprannaturale. That which in its being 
or operation transcends the powers or opera¬ 
tions of nature, the term nature including 
the spheres of finite spiritual as well as 
material forces. Cf. Nature, and Natura¬ 
The distinction between natural and super¬ 
natural must not be confounded with that 
between natural and spiritual. The spiritual 
realm is not all supernatural, but includes a 
cross section of the natural. It is natural in 
so far as it falls under the operation of ordi¬ 
nary psychic laws. The supernatural is also 
spiritual. It is the realm of the infinite 
Spirit, and its operations, in so far as they 
manifest themselves. in the world-series, are 
properly speaking miraculous. 
Literature : see Supernaturalism, Natu¬ 
ralism (in theology), and Miracles, (a.t.o.) 
Supernaturalism : Ger. Supernaturalis- 
mus ; Fr. surnaturalisme ; Ital. trascendenta- 
lismo. (i) The doctrine that the world, in¬ 
cluding man, is to be referred, in the last 
analysis, to a being who in his nature and 
power transcends the world and cannot be 
identified with its forces and operations. 
(2) The doctrine that Christianity, and the 
miracles by which it is attested, are of super¬ 
natural origin, in the sense that they must be 
referred to God as their author and cannot 
be explained by means of natural agencies 
The drift of modern thought has been 
strongly in the direction of naturalism, not 
in the sense of denying the divine agency in 
the world, but rather in that of identifying 
that agency with the immanent processes of 
nature. This tendency shows itself, in the 
realm of Christian theology and history, in 
the attempt to bring all the facts of Christian 
doctrine and history under the categories of 
natural development. 
Literature: Bushnell, Nature and the 
Supernatural; Wm. McClintock, Nat. Hist, 
of Religion; Martineau, Seat of Authority 
in Religion; Stäudlin, Gesch. d. Rational¬ 
ismus u. Supernaturalismus (1826); F. de 
Rougemont, Les deux cités, tome ii (1874); 
M. Perty, Sichtbare u. unsichtbare Welt 
(1881); Anon., Supernatural Religion (18 7 6); 
Lighteoot, Supernatural Religion (1889). 
Super-personal : see Hyper- (2). 
Superstition [Lat. superstitio, from super- 
stare, to stand in amazement and awe] : Ger. 
Aberglaube ; Fr. superstition ; Ital. super- 
stizione. Subjectively : the disposition or ten¬ 
dency to ascribe phenomena which admit of 
natural explanation to occult or supernatural 
causes ; objectively : any system of religious 
belief or practice which manifests such a 
The English usage of the term is very 
loose. The German word Aberglaube seems to 
express its meaning more accurately. Super¬ 
stition is excessive belief or credulity, and 
arises from the encroachment of faith on the 
rights of reason and knowledge. In popular 
usage the term is applied to any system of 
belief or worship that is conceived to be false 
or morally degrading, and especially to various 
forms of polytheism. (A.t.o.) 
Supply and. Demand (equation of) : Ger. 
Angebot und Nachfrage ; Fr. offre et demande ; 
Ital. offerta e domanda. An economic pro¬ 
cess by which, through the agency of free 
competition, price movements result in most 
fully utilizing the available commodities in 
(1) As the price of an article increases, the 
quantity demanded tends to diminish, and 
the quantity offered tends to increase. There 
will thus in ordinary cases be a certain price 
which ‘ clears the market ’ and makes the two 
(2) This price will, theoretically, be 
reached by free competition. For, as long as 
the supply is in excess of the demand, sellers 
will be in danger of having unsold goods left 
on their hands, and will compete to force 
prices down ; but if the demand is in excess 
of the supply, buyers will be in danger of 
having wants unsatisfied, and their competi- 


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