Volltext: Dictionary of philosophy and psychology including many of the principal conceptions of ethics, logics, aesthetics ... and giving a terminology in English, French, German and Italian, vol. 2 [lead-zwing] (2)

(q. y.) follow the mathematicians in the very 
had use of this word to signify the operation 
of changing the order of a finite series of 
objects, and consequently define it in logic as 
a totally unlimited dyadic relative ol which 
no individual is relate to two correlates or 
correlate to two relates ; or as a dyadic rela¬ 
tive of which every individual is relate to just 
one correlate and correlate to just one relate. 
The mathematicians begin to show some 
symptoms of dissatisfaction with this ill- 
chosen word ; so that logicians would do well 
to change it at once to 'permutation. Cf. 
Mathematics, and Numbeb. • (c.s.p.) 
Substitution (in theology, Christian). That 
feature of the scheme of redemption in which 
Jesus Christ is represented as taking the 
sinner’s place, and giving satisfaction for the 
broken law and purchasing righteousness for 
the sinner. 
The doctrine of substitution presupposes 
the necessity of propitiation either by the 
sinner or his substitute. Jesus Christ be¬ 
comes the expiatory sacrifice that satisfies the 
requirements of divine justice and renders 
the exercise of pardoning grace possible, while 
the obedience of Christ constitutes a right¬ 
eousness which may be imputed to the sinner 
for his justification. 
Literature-. Edwakds, Sermons on Justifi¬ 
cation by Faith alone and Wisdom dis¬ 
played in Salvation, iv (Worcester ed.); An¬ 
selm, Cur Deus Homo 1; Athanasius, Contra 
Arianos ; Augustine, De Pecc. Mun. ; Oxen- 
ham, Doctrine of the Atonement (1881); 
Shedd, Hist, of Christ. Doctrine ; the Con¬ 
fessions of the Anglican, Lutheran, and Presby¬ 
terian churches. Cf. Imputation, and Atone¬ 
ment. (a.t.o.) 
Substrate or Substratum : see Subsis¬ 
tence, and cf. Substance (4), and Essence. 
Subsumption [Lat. subsumptio\ : Ger. 
Subsumtion ; Fr. subsumption ; Ital. subsun- 
zione. A proposition practically putting a case 
under a rule ; as the minor premises of the 
first figure of Syllogism (q. v.). (c.s.p.) 
The ‘ subsumption theory ’ is the older 
logical view that the subject of a proposition 
is ‘ subsumed ’ under the predicate. (k.g.) 
Succession and Duration [Lat. sub + 
cedere, to yield ; and Lat. durare, to last] : 
Ger. (1) Aufeinanderfolge, (2) Dauer; Fr. (1) 
succession, (2) durée; Ital. (1) successione, (2) 
durata. Duration and succession are corre¬ 
lated aspects of Change (q.v., 2) in that in 
which individual Identity (q.v.) is pre¬ 
Theidentityis such as to include in the unity 
of an object, recognized as the same or different, 
determinations which cannot be present to¬ 
gether. These determinations are then said 
to succeed each other, and the object which 
they qualify is said to endure or to have 
duration. See Time, Time Pekception, and 
Time Sense. (g.e.s.-j.m.b.) 
The successive determinations of the iden¬ 
tical object all form part of its being, irre¬ 
spective of the question whether they have 
taken place, are now taking place, or are 
going to take place. So long as it has not 
changed in those characters which give it 
unity and continuity of interest for the sub¬ 
ject attending to it, and so constitute it an 
individual identity for this subject, all its 
other temporal vicissitudes are integral consti¬ 
tuents of its total existence. When it has 
once changed in those characters which con¬ 
stitute its individual identity, it cannot change 
any more, because it has ceased to exist. But 
all other changes are part and parcel of its 
individual unity, as truly as legs, seat, and 
back are parts of a chair. We must therefore 
refuse to accept Kant’s dictum that ‘only 
the unchanging changes.’ Kant appears to 
have divided the changing object into two 
parts, one remaining materially identical, i. e. 
indistinguishably alike; and the other con¬ 
sisting in a series of differences arising and 
disappearing after one another. On this 
view the difference cannot be said to change : 
they only succeed each other. Kant infers 
that it is the materially identical element or 
the ‘ unchanging ’ which changes. This is 
not merely a paradox ; it is a real absurdity, 
which only disappears when we substitute 
the conception of individual for that of 
material identity. 
A materially identical object may endure 
although it does not change. But its duration 
is always apprehended in relation to some 
other object (or objects) which does change. 
The changes necessary to the apprehension of 
its duration may be merely the sequence of 
moments of time in the abstract, or they may 
be merely changes in the psychical state of the 
subject which takes cognizance of it. (g.f.s.) 
Succubus [ML. succubus, from sub + cum- 
bere, to lie] : Ger .Succubus; Fr .succube; Ital. 
succubo. An alleged nocturnal demon con¬ 
sorting with human beings. 
Witches were tried and convicted of pro¬ 
ducing offspring through such agency. Cf. 
Witchckaet. (j.j.) 
Suffering [Lat. sub +ferre, to bear] : Ger. 


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