Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Dictionary of philosophy and psychology including many of the principal conceptions of ethics, logics, aesthetics ... and giving a terminology in English, French, German and Italian, vol. 2 [lead-zwing]
Baldwin, James Mark
Used in various connections: (i) In gen¬ 
eral, as good or bad style ; idealistic or real¬ 
istic style. (2) Historically, as classic, 
Gothic, romantic, Doric styles. (3) With 
reference to the distinctive traits of the re¬ 
spective arts, as picturesque, sculpturesque, 
musical, poetic style. (4) Of an individual, 
as ‘in the style of Rembrandt.’ (5) As an 
attribute of value, as * this artist (or work) 
has style.’ 
Literature : Volkelt, Aesth. Zeitfragen 
(1895), chap, iv; Fechner, Vorschule d. 
Aesth. (1876), chap, xxvi ; Gutau, L’Art au 
point de vue sociologique (1889), chap, x; 
Riegel, Die bildenden Künste (4th ed., 1895), 
chap, x ; Spencer, The Philosophy of Style, 
Essays, ii ; see also the aesthetic publications 
of Vischer, Köstlin, Schasler, Véron; 
Ruskin, and Carrière. (j.h.t.) 
Style (in sociology) : Custom (q. v.) of the 
more temporary and ephemeral sort con¬ 
sidered as embodying models for imitation ; 
equivalent to mode. 
Made an important factor in the imitation 
theory of social propagation by Tarde (Lois 
de Vimitation). (j.m.b.) 
Suarez, Francisco. (1548-1617.) Born of 
noble family in Grenada, he first studied law. 
But he entered the Order of Jesus, and devoted 
himself zealously to theology and philosophy. 
He taught in Borne, Alcala, Salamanca, and 
finally in the high school of Coimbra. He died 
at Lisbon. 
Subalternant : see Subalternation, and 
Opposition (in logic). 
Subalternate : see Subalternation, and 
Opposition (in logic). 
Subalternation [Lat. sub + alter, other] : 
Ger. Subalternation ; Fr. subalternation ; Ital. 
subalternazione. The relation of a particular 
proposition to the universal proposition having 
the same subject, predicate, and quality, that 
particular proposition (‘ Some S is—or is not 
—P,’ called the subalternate) being regarded 
as following by immediate inference from that 
universal (‘ Any or all is—or is not—P,’ called 
the subalternant). Cf. the diagram given under 
Opposition (in logic). (c.s.p.) 
Subconscious [Lat. sub, under, + cum, 
together, +scire, to know] : Ger. halbbewusst, 
unterbewusst’, Fr. subconscient’, Ital. sub- 
cosciente, subconscio. (1) Not clearly recog¬ 
nized in a present state of consciousness, yet 
entering into the development of subsequent 
states of consciousness. 
(2) Loosely, the Unconscious (q. v.). 
(j.m.b., g.e.s.) 
It is a least degree of consciousness, re¬ 
quired by the law of continuity. We have 
(a) the conscious process given in attention, 
the ‘ focus ’ of consciousness ; (6) the conscious 
process given in the state of inattention, or in 
the rest of the ‘ field ’ of consciousness ; and 
(c) the subconscious process, which cannot 
itself attract attention, or be made the object 
of voluntary attention, until it has attained 
to stage (b), i. e. until it has ceased to be 
The facts which have led to the hypothesis 
of a subconsciousness are (a) the existence of 
blind conations, organic tendencies, &c., for 
which no conscious antecedent can be dis¬ 
covered ; (b) the mechanization of complicated 
movements, such as piano-playing ; (c) the 
appearance in ‘ memory ’ of ideas which seem 
to have cropped up of themselves, i. e. have 
no assignable physical or mental condition ; 
(d) the phenomena of ‘ secondary ’ Person¬ 
ality (q. v.), &c. (e.b.t.) 
These distinctions are those of ‘ degree ’ of 
consciousness, as contrasted with that of 
Grade (q. v.) of consciousness. It is impor¬ 
tant that we separate carefully these functional 
phases in consciousness of content, from the 
genetic phases in the evolution of mind, what¬ 
ever analogies may be discovered between 
them. The diagram given under Parallel¬ 
ism (psychophysical) illustrates the two series 
—the horizontal dotted line at each part has 
its differences of degree, the vertical dotted 
line gives differences of grade. In other words, 
at every grade of consciousness we find distinc¬ 
tions of degree. The term ‘ stage ’ (Stufe) is 
sometimes used for grade. 
Dispositions (q. v.) generally are subcon¬ 
scious. Particular experiences often strike 
us, as when we are occupied with talking, 
writing, &c., of which we become aware only 
subsequently ; at their occurrence they were 
subconscious. The subsequent state shows 
their working in the development of conscious¬ 
The terms ‘ subliminal ’ and ‘ marginal ’ are 
used to characterize the subconscious, both 
figuratively. That is subliminal which is 
below a theoretical Threshold (q. v.) of 
consciousness ; that marginal which is not 
in the focus of the field (after analogy with 
the field of vision ; cf. LI. Morgan, Lntrod. 
to Compar. Psychol). Cf. Unconscious, and 
Personality (disorders of). 
To theories which accept ‘ unconscious ’ 
mind, the subconscious is a transition state 
through which presentations pass in coming to 


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