Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Dictionary of philosophy and psychology including many of the principal conceptions of ethics, logics, aesthetics ... and giving a terminology in English, French, German and Italian, vol. 2 [lead-zwing]
Baldwin, James Mark
sterility (i. e. relative infertility) the begin¬ 
ning of divergent lines of evolution, which 
issue in new species. Pearson has utilized 
the opposite sort of variation, i. e. towards 
increased Fertility (q. v.), in his theory 
of Reproductive Selection (q. v.). Cf. 
Natural Selection, ad fin. (j.m.b.) 
Stewart, Dugald. (1753-1828.) Bornât 
Edinburgh, he studied there and at Glasgow. 
Assistant professor in mathematics at Edin¬ 
burgh, 1774; succeeded his father in that 
chair, 1785, and was the same year trans¬ 
ferred to the chair of moral philosophy ; 
resigned his chair in 1810 on account of ill 
health, and retired to his seat on the Firth of 
Forth, where he devoted himself to literature 
until his death. See Scottish Philosophy, 
and Realism (natural). 
Sthenic [Gr. crôévos, strength] : Ger. sthe- 
nisch ; Fr. sthénique ; Ital. stenico. (1) 
Energetic; characterized by vigour of func¬ 
tion. Also used as synonym of stimulating. 
Asthenic is equivalent to weak, feeble. 
(2) Sthenic diseases are those attended with 
a morbid increase of vital action, and are thus 
opposed to states of debility. (j.j.) 
Stigma [Gr. arly/m, brand or mark] : Ger. 
Stigma ; Fr. stigmate ; Ital. stimate. (1) In 
mental pathology : a mark of degenei’ation or 
neurotic diathesis. 
Anatomical or teratological stigmata (stunt¬ 
edness, malformations, asymmetries of body, 
peculiarities of hair, of the ear, of the 
limbs, feminism, persistence of infantile 
characteristics, &c.) are distinguished from 
functional stigmata (backward development 
of speech or locomotion, anomalies of voice, 
of movements, absence of reflexes, sexual 
perversions, optical anomalies such as stra¬ 
bismus, colour blindness,&c.). See Degenera¬ 
tion and literature there cited. 
(2) Patches on the skin in the form of 
inflammation or drops of blood produced by 
suggestion. Such phenomena are observed 
in extreme cases of Hypnosis (q. v.) and 
Hysteria (q. v.) and in religious ecstasy. 
One of the best known cases is that of Louise 
Literature: D. Hack Tuke, Influence of 
the Mind on the Body (2nd ed., 1884), i. 119- 
26, and references there given; the literature 
of Hypnosis. (j.j.) 
Stimulant [Lat. stimulare, to prick] : Ger. 
Reizmittel) Fr. stimulant) Ital. stimolante. 
Any condition or substance that temporarily 
quickens the natural function of a part or 
In addition to this general sense of the term 
(including physical agencies, such as warmth, 
cold, electricity, and mental excitement, such as 
joy, hope), stimulant is used in a special sense 
to refer particularly to the action of drugs on 
the nervous system. Such action may in turn 
be local or general and may affect one group 
of functions more than another. Among such 
stimulants alcohol is practically the most 
important. See Alcoholism, Intoxication, 
and Psychic Efeect of Drugs. (j.j.) 
Stimulation (1) and (2) Stimulus [Lat. 
stimulus, a goad]: Ger. (1) Reizung, (2) 
Reiz ; Fr. (1) excitation, (2) stimulus, excitant ; 
Ital. (1) eccitamento, (2) stimolo. The cause 
of a nervous excitation which is attended (or 
followed) by a change in consciousness is a 
stimulus, and the process set up in a terminal 
organ by the action of a stimulus is the 
stimulation. The stimulus may be physical 
or physiological; the stimulation is always 
physiological. Cf. Organic Sensation, and 
Nerve Stimulation and Conduction. 
The psychological stimulus is evidently a 
subform of the physiological, standing to the 
latter as the psychophysical bodily process 
stands to the group of bodily processes at 
large. Stimuli have been classified as internal 
and external, mechanical and chemical, ade¬ 
quate and inadequate, &c. (e.b.t.) 
Weber’s Law (q. v.) is an exact formula¬ 
tion of the relation of stimulus to sensation, 
and is sometimes called ‘ law of stimulus ’ or 
of ‘ stimulus intensity.’ (j.m.b.) 
Stimulus : see Stimulation. 
Stirp [Lat. stirps, root, race, stock] : Ger. 
Stamm (in use, but not exact), Rassenanlage 
(Barth); Fr. same as Eng. (used by Delage); 
Ital. stirpe (in use, but not exact—e.m.). A 
term suggested by Francis Galton ! to express 
the sum-total of the germs, gemmules, or 
whatever they may be called, which are to 
be found in the newly fertilized ovum.’ 
The term was suggested in the paper cited 
below. Although a modified Pangenesis 
(q. v.) is allowed to play some part in heredity7, 
the main stress is laid on the handing on of 
‘ stirp,’ and much of the argument is on the 
lines since developed by Weismann. The 
conception is practically that of ‘ stock ’ as 
popularly used. Cf. Weismannism. 
Literature : F. Galton, A Theory of Here¬ 
dity, J. Anthropol. Inst. (1876); Delage, 
Protoplasma et l’Hérédité, 560 ff. ; Brooks, 
The Foundations of Zoology (1899). (c.Ll.m.) 
Stoa [Gr. o-rod, a porch] : see Stoics, 
under Schools of Greece, III. 


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